Monday, September 30, 2019

Enzyme Catalase Labs

Varibles that affect Enzyme Catalysis Reaction Rates Introduction Molecules are constantly moving in our bodies and in nature. When molecules move fast enough they collide into one another, allowing chemical reactions to occur. Factors such as temperature and concentrations can either help increase or decrease these reactions. (Jubenville. ) Enzymes are known as catalyst because they are able to speed up reaction rates without being destroyed or altered. They are able to encourage chemical reactions by decreasing the energy of activation.The main function of enzyme catalase is to convert hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in our bodies into oxygen and water. This can be visually seen when hydrogen peroxide is put on a wound and the peroxide bubbles. Enzymes can also be found in plant cells and fungi. (Huston. ) In this experiment we test the many variables that can change the rate of this reaction such as temperature, concentration levels of enzyme catalase and pH values. We are able to track these changes using an O2 Gas Sensor. (Enzymes. ) It is predicted that the rate of reaction will increase with temperature, pH levels and concentration. MethodsThree test tubes were each filled with 5 mL of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 5 mL of water. 10 drops of enzymes suspension was then added to the Naigene chamber for each observation. Test tubes one, two and three were added to the Naigene chamber respectively. The O2 Gas Sensor was placed on top of the Naigene chamber. The Naigene chamber was swirled for 60 seconds while the O2 Gas Sensor recorded the oxygen being released during the reaction. The results were recorded. To study the effects of enzyme concentration on rate of reaction, four test tubes were each filled with 5 mL of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 5 mL of water.For each test observation 5, 10, 15 and 20 drops of enzyme catalase were placed in the Naigene chamber. The four test tubes were then added respectively. The Naigene chamber was swirled for 60 seconds while the O2 Ga s Sensor recorded the oxygen being released during the reaction. To test the effect of temperature on reaction rate, three test tubes were each filled with 5 mL of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 5 mL of water. For each observation 10 drops of enzyme catalase was added to the Naigene chamber. Test tube one was placed in ice (temperature of 0-5 C). Test tube wo was placed in room temperature (20-25 C). Test tube three was placed in warm water (30-35 C). Each test tube was held in this environment for five minutes. The Naigene chamber was swirled for 60 seconds while the O2 Gas Sensor recorded the oxygen being released during the reaction. To measure the effect of pH on catalase activity, three test tubes were each filled with 5 mL of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 5 mL of the appropriate pH buffer. Test tube one was filled with 5 mL of pH 4. Test tube two was filled with 5 mL of pH 7. Test tube three was filled with 5 mL of pH 10.Ten drops of enzyme catalase was added to the Naigene chamber and t est tube one, two and three were added respectively. The O2 Gas Sensor was placed on top of the Naigene chamber and was swirled for 60 seconds. The O2 Gas Sensor then recorded the oxygen being released during the reaction. To measure the effect of different substrare concentrations on catalase reactions, three test tubes were used and labeled one, two and three. Test tube one was filled with 3 mL of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 7 mL of water. Test tube two was filled with 5 mL of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 5 mL of water.Test tube three was filled with 7 mL of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 3 mL of water. 10 drops of catalase suspension was placed in the Naigene bottle for each observation. Test tube one, two and three were then added to the Naigene chamber respectively. The O2 Gas Sensor was placed on top of the Naigene chamber and was swirled for 60 seconds. The O2 Gas Sensor then recorded the oxygen being released during the reaction. Results Figure 1 Test Tube Number| Rate of Initial Reactio n (m)| 1| 0. 085282| 2| 0. 074574| 3| 0. 09223| Figure 1: The average reaction rate of the enzyme concentration.Figure 2 Test Tube| Drops of enzyme suspension| Rate of Initial Reaction (m)| 1| 5| 0. 060459| 2| 10| 0. 071033| 3| 15| 0. 0966| 4| 20| 0. 15003| Figure 2: Changes in reaction rate due to the enzyme concentration. Figure 3 Test Tube| Temperature measured| Rate of Initial Reaction (m)| 1| 0-5 C| 0. 038694| 2| 20-25 C| 0. 084487| 3| 30-35 C| 0. 065194| Figure 3: Changes in reaction rate due to the effects of different temperatures. Figure 4 Test Tube| pH level| Rate of Initial Reaction (m)| 1| 4| 0. 013519| 2| 7| 0. 045141| 3| 10| 0. 049314|Figure 4: Changes in reaction rate due to the pH level of the solution. Figure 5 Test Tube| Amount of H2O2| Amount of H2O| Rate of Initial Reaction (m)| 1| 3| 7| 0. 027672| 2| 5| 5| 0. 09168| 3| 7| 3| 0. 1087| Figure 5: Changes in reaction rate due to different ratios of 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and water (H2O) In figure 1, we can see that the figures for each test were relatively the same. This is because the amount and type of chemicals used in each test were the same. Figure two shows the initial rate of reaction increasing as the amount of enzyme suspension increases.This evidence demonstrates that the enzyme suspension allowed the reaction to occur more rapidly. Figure 3 demonstrates how temperature can play a role in rate of reaction. Our figures show that showed that rate of reaction was at a peak when in medium temperatures. Various levels of pH also played a role in rate of reaction. Figure 4 demonstrates that the higher the pH level, the faster reaction rate was. Figure 5 demonstrates that different ratios of H2O2 and H2O can alter the rate of reaction. The higher amounts of H2O2 allowed higher reaction rates then the lower concentrated amounts.Discussion Enzymes are responsible for almost all chemical reactions that take place. They are made up of proteins and are considered biocatalysts. (Jubenville. ) Biocatalysts can be described as when enzymes are used as catalysts to cause chemical reactions. (Novasep. ) Enzymes are known as catalyst because they are able to speed up reaction rates without being destroyed or altered. They are able to encourage chemical reactions by decreasing the energy of activation. (Huston. ) Enzymes attract substrates to their surface allowing chemical reactions to occur.Every enzyme haves reactive sites which allow very specific chemical reactions. The shape of the reactive site on the enzyme and the shape of the reactive site on the substrate must completely match in order for them to attract to one another. (Jubenville. ) Enzyme catalase can be found in various places of our bodies and nature. The main function of enzyme catalase is to convert hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in our bodies into oxygen and water. This can be visually seen when hydrogen peroxide is put on a wound and the peroxide bubbles. (Huston. ) It can also be found in nature in plants and fungi.These molecules are constantly moving. When moving fast enough they collide into one another, allowing chemical reactions to occur. Factors such as temperature and concentrations can either help decrease or increase these reactions. Concentration of enzyme catalase for example, plays a huge role of how much oxygen will be broken down. Concentrations of enzyme catalase can also increase chances of a chemical reaction occurring because there are more molecules available to do the job. The higher concentration of enzyme catalase used, the more oxygen will be released during reaction.The temperatures of the environment in which these reactions take place also play a crucial role on the reaction. Heat for example, speeds up the movement of molecules allowing more of a chance for them to collide and cause a chemical reaction. (Jubenville. ) pH factors also change reaction rates. pH stands for power of hydrogen and measures the concentration on hydrogen ions in a solution. (Hyperphy sics. ) The higher the concentration, the more hydrogen ions available to be broken down by enzymes. The more hydrogen or hydrogen eroxide in a solution, the more oxygen being released during the reaction. It was expected that reaction rates would increase with higher concentrations of H2O2, pH levels, temperatures and ratios. This was all proven true through our observations of our experiment.Works Cited â€Å"Biocatalysis: Definition of Biocatalysis in Novasep Glossary. † Biocatalysis: Definition of Biocatalysis in Novasep Glossary. Novasep, 2010. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. <http://www. novasep. com/misc/glossary. asp? defId=49>. (Novasep. ) â€Å"Enzymes. † Enzymes. Tuberose, n. d. Web. 27 Sept. 2012. <http://www. uberose. com/Enzymes. html>. (Enzymes. ) â€Å"Frequently Asked Questions A » Learn A » Houston Enzymes. † Frequently Asked Questions A » Learn A » Houston Enzymes. Huston Enzymes, 2010. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. <http://www. houston-enzymes. com/learn/faq. php>. (Huston. ) Jubenville, Robert B. , and Richard G. Thomas. General Biology Laboratory Manual. Third ed. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt, 2008. Print. (Jubenville. ) â€Å"PH. † As a Measure of Acid and Base Properties. Hyperphysics, n. d. Web. 5 Oct. 2012. <http://hyperphysics. phy-astr. gsu. edu/hbase/chemical/ph. html>. (Hyperphysics. )

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Wolf Lichen

Poisonous but also a healer. It is very abundant in Idaho but very scarce and hard to find in Scandinavia. Wolf Lichen is the name of this mysterious plant. It is one of many different types of lichen found in nature and varies in ways such as habitat, use, and appearance. Lichen is a slow-growing plant genus that is usually structured in a spindle or leaf like shape. Lichen is made up of two components; fungi and algae. (Hollering, J. 014) The Fungal aspect is present in that it contains Chitin in their cell walls, they produce hyphen, spore producing, it is multicultural, and that they deed on dead trees/plants . The algal component means they are eukaryote, are able to photosynthesis, and they have specialized tissues. (Thomas-Sucker, J. 2012) In Wolf Lichen and dead/dying trees form by symbiotic relationships. Symbiosis describes a close interaction between two organisms that benefits/harm at least one of the organisms. Sometimes symbiotic relationships can be beneficial, but can be sometimes harmful.This symbiotic relationship is beneficial to one another, because if we did not have dead or dying plants we could never have Wolf Lichen(Hollering,J. 2014). Wolf Lichen also produces its own food in order for it to survive. To do so, it goes through photosynthetic processes. Photosynthesis starts with trapping the sun's energy in the form of sugar. Then the Wolf Lichen stores the resulting sugar in cells to form glucose for quick growth. Photosynthesis represents the beauty of the chemical process that takes six water molecules from the roots and six carbon dioxide molecules from the air and creates one sugar molecule.If there was no such thing as photosynthesis there would be no life on earth as we know it. (aesthetic, J. , & Comma, C. 014) Lichen are categorized into three different kingdoms, which are Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Protests, and Kingdom Moaner. One interesting fact about Wolf Lichen is they are able to shut down their metabolism during times when n utrition is scarce and also in freezing weather. Wolf Lichen typically grows less than a millimeter per year. There are a total of 287 different types of species of lichen of 68 genres, and a total of 8 different varieties in Idaho .According to recent research conducted by Dustin Shown, John Areola, and Braided Irishman on the Ph of lichen; Wolf Lichen, along with other lichen have a mean of approximately 4. 1 on the Ph scale. This means that Wolf Lichen have an acidic compound (See figure 1 at presentation). (Thomas-Sucker, J. 2012) Wolf Lichen is also named Lethargy. There are two types of Lethargy (L. ) that are not easily noticeable; L. vulpine and L. Columbian. These two species are very similar in many ways but also very different. L. vulpine is asexual and reproduces with sorehead, while L. Alumina is sexual and does not reproduce with sorehead. L. vulpine is the only lichen that is poisonous. (Hollering,J. 2014) Sorehead is a reproductive structure for lichens. Lichens can reproduce asexually and sexually. Sorehead is a powdery substance composed of fungal hyphen that wraps around contractible. Fungal hyphen make up the basic body structure of lichen. (Conrad,J. 2005) As Wolf Lichen can grow to the size of 1 CM. But can be as large as 12 CM. The branches are round and wrinkled when in very dry conditions. The color ranges from a light yellow-green to a dull yellow.It will not grow in freezing temperatures. However; frost does not kill it, it Just stops growing. Once the weather is warmer the lichen will start growing and reproducing. Wolf Lichen is extremely sensitive to air pollution and will not grow in polluted areas. Wolf Lichen grows on dead trees and stumps. It grows more often on sunny sides of trees and rocks. It does not usually grow in coastal rain forests. (Conrad, J. 2005) In the past people have poisoned wolves and other animals with Wolf Lichen. Since the lichen is poisonous, it allowed the Coachman people in Northern California to use p oison arrow heads.Farmers in the past used pieces of meat, crushed glass, and inserted Wolf Lichen to poison the wolves and other animals that would bother their crops. (aesthetic, J. , & Comma, C. 2014) The lichen has vulpine acid in it which stops the respiratory systems of the animals. The glass is used to damage the intestines of the animals, so that the toxin could attack the body and kill the animals. Wolf Lichen is very poisonous, which made people have to use a mask so they wouldn't harm themselves. (ABA, N. 2011) Wolf Lichen was used as a yellow dye. This dye was used for coloring baskets.Wolf Lichen was also used for medicine. Lichen was used to wash out wounds and cuts, curing their injuries. (Conrad, J. 2005) Statistics show that fifty percent of all lichen are known as an antibiotic. In the United States they used lichen for mouth, stomach, intestines, anus, vagina, nose, ear, and skin pain. While in Finland it was used for treating skin eruptions, skin wounds, and athl ete's foot. (Hollering, J. 2014) In Scandinavia, Wolf Lichen is a rare species and are red-listed, which means that they are in danger of becoming extinct.Wolf lichen used to be abundant in an area of Scandinavia called GarГenslaved, but after the years had passed, Wolf Lichen became scarce and harder to find. The Wolf Lichen was exploited and ruined, so trying to protect GarГenslaved against people who destroyed Wolf Lichen is one thing we can do to hopefully save the Wolf Lichen. Also Wolf Lichen is the most photographed lichen in GarГenslaved. The species are also located around Europe and all the way to North America. (ABA, N. 2011) Although Wolf lichen is scarce in Scandinavia it is very abundant in Idaho.Wolf Lichen is found on most of the trees that are dying or already dead. Wolf Lichen is an indicator that helps people tell if trees or other plants are dead or dying. It can be found all over the town of McCall, Idaho, which is right next to Ponderosa State Park. Wolf Lichen helps the state park by letting them know what trees to cut down or to watch out for so it does not cause any damage to the people visiting or damage to the ecosystem. (Shoehorn, S. 001) Wolf Lichen is mostly found on twigs and stumps of most trees or plants. There are, however, lichen that is found on tree bark,and also houses and fence posts.It sometimes begins on rocks. It usually grows in a thick, solid cover, around and on dead trees and limbs. It is more abundant in numerous habitats where sunlight is more commonly found. (Turner & Kindle, 1998) Overall, Wolf Lichen is a special type of lichen, not only is it poisonous and a healer, but it is the only type of lichen that contains poison. It is also categorized into three different types of Kingdoms which differentiates from all other lichens. Wolf Lichen has many uses. The way people used to use it is very different from how we use it today.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Historic American Wars through the Ages

In this research paper, the various wars that America has taken part in are discussed and dissected to identify the root causes for the wars, the actual incidents which transpired and the final consequences in the aftermath of the said wars. Evolution of the Militia System in the Colonial Times The militia is recognized as the local able-bodied force which the British created in order to protect its vested interests in the colonized regions when its own military was insufficient to contain the military responsibilities (Telzrow, 2006).The responsibility of the militia in the case of the United States was to basically supress the native population and safeguard the British interests in the geographical region. The militia was basically equipped and trained along the regular army lines and were to act as the front runners in any altercation. Evolution The movement of the English into the region previously dominated by the Indians was seen as an act against the locals as they were maltr eated and they began to become increasingly hostile.Aside from the local threat, the British were paranoid due to the presence of the Spanish, French and Dutch who were located all around the United States. The requirement for the militia units were that the person should be able-bodied and lie within the age of 15-60 (Telzrow, 2006). The leadership was often bestowed to wealthy families and people who were politically strong. These armies comprised of locals of the surrounding areas and rarely went into battles in distant places as there primary objective was providing security to their own locality.The militia was also restricted due to labor demands since most were common villagers who had some military training. So when the harvesting season was upon them, the militia was understaffed. Eventually the volunteer militia was created which consisted of militia members who voluntarily made the militia and were responsible in procuring their own equipment and weapons. This militia had a more military and social background then the regular militia. ImportanceThe population of the army in the United States was not sufficient enough to provide internal security as well as address the problems with the expanding Dutch, Spanish and French empires (Cooper, 1997). The local militia provided the British with a constant supply of soldiers and they would handle the internal conflicts and handle security issues. The militia provided villages and towns a means of defending themselves against neighboring areas and it was the militia which provided the Civil war with able-bodied men to defend their rights.British View of the Militia The British viewed the militia as a reserve unit for their disposal. Even though the militia was trained under the army, they were rarely taken for any expeditions far from their localities. Since most of the militia members were farmers and villagers they weren’t taken far from their responsibilities. It was this short-sight which eventual ly cost the British, as the militia was the fundamental force behind the Battle for Independence in which the British lost against the united Americans.The militia was led by a trained contingent of professionally trained soldiers and the concept of a dual army was born which existed in the War of Independence. The War of 1812 The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and Great Britain. The war lasted from 1812 to 1815. Causes The causes for the war could be traced to the United States frustration towards the British navy and its actions conducted in the sea.During this era, the British were searching for men who they could use as seamen and for this purpose they would stop and search for deserted sailors on ships headed towards the United States and departing from it. The British did not hesitate in hassling Americans in the process (Galafilm). The British were also pressing for the United States to quit trading with France, since France was at war with Britai n. This was during the Napoleonic era. These strict regulations and haughty attitude eventually frustrated the United States to such an extent that they took notice of these acts in the United States Congress.The United States felt that their rights on the seas had been violated. The United States felt that if it tried some economic approaches then under the pressure the British would fold but their attempts at constraining the economic activities across the sea routes proved ineffective and they eventually declared war against Great Britain on June 18, 1812. Conduct of the War Responding to the call for war, the United States decided to win over the Canadian region occupied by the British. The United States launched a three pronged attack in 1812 which failed.During the year however the Americans were able to win a series of single-ship engagements and were able to harry British shipping. In response to these actions the British tightened the coastlines and created blockades. The o utcome of this was that the American trade suffered, and their finances were weakened, and the entire coastline was exposed to attacks from the British. In 1813 the Americans attempted to take over Canada again. Yet similar to past expeditions, this attempt failed at once. 1814 however proved to be the decisive year, as the British had won over the French.They began concentrating their attention towards the United States front and began harrying troops along to the States in order to suppress the American revolt. They concentrated on attacking on 3 major fronts; New York, New Orleans and Chesapeake (Berton, 1988). The British were able to gain victory in all 3 places and the Americans were barely able to resist the forces. Consequence In 1815 the Battle of New Orleans took place in which the British’s superior forces were unable to overpower the lesser American force.Using strategic miscalculations on the part of the British, the Americans were able to defeat them in the hist oric battle. The end of the war was marked by the Treaty of the Ghent, in which none of the problems were resolved. Winners or Losers The War of 1812 did not provide any conclusive winners or losers as both sides suffered many losses economically and with respect to lives. The period from 1812-1815 marked an economical decline for America and it did not help the United States as such. The Mexican War of 1846The Mexican War was fought between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848. Causes After the annexation of Texas, Mexico appeared claiming Texas as part of its own geographic boundaries (Son of the South, 2003). This came as a surprise to the Americans as Mexico was already a recognized state with its own geographic borders clearly identified by the United States of America, England, France and other governments. The Mexicans were also causing trouble since the Republican government had succeeded in their country and they were a constant thorn in the side of the United Sta tes.The state of Mexico would replenish its treasury and gather funding by plundering United States vessels in the Gulf of Mexico. Upon the United States complain, the governments formulated treaties yet they were never acted upon and the plundering continued to transpire unabated. The War In 1845, President Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to occupy a position near the Rio Grande, as a precautionary measure since both sides were becoming increasingly hostile towards each other.During the expedition moving closer to Rio Grande, General Zachary began the construction of Fort Brown, which was later targeted by the Mexicans as a point to be recognized and neutralized. The first battle was at Palo Alto, after the Mexicans began gathering around the Fort Brown and it appeared as if it would fall. In this battle the United States won against the gathered Mexican forces. In the month of May 1846, both sides openly declared war and urged their states to take the neighbor as a recognized threat.What followed later were a number of expeditions across Texas into the state of Mexico, with the generals defeating the local forces and extending the United States controlled territory. Matamoras, Monterrey, Veracruz, Cerro Gordo, etc. were majorly all successful campaigns conducted by the U. S. generals. During this war California also gained independence as the locals declared the said independence after the Mexican forces were repelled from the state. The northward expedition by General Scott of the United States forces was undeterred and in September 13, the city of Mexico had fallen to the U.S. government and the Mexicans were ultimately defeated. A reason which could be attributed to the constant defeat by the Mexicans against the Americans could be that the Mexicans at the time were locked in internal conflicts as well, which resulted in their inability to unite against the foreign threat (Soto, 2006). Consequences of the Mexican War After the Mexicans were defeated i n battle, in February 1848 the Mexican Congress agreed to establish a treaty of peace with the United States generals at Guadalupe Hidalgo. Both sides ratified to it on July 4 of the same year.The stipulation of the treaty was that Mexico would be evacuated of American troop’s presence in 3 months and payments worth $3,000,000 in hand and $12,000,000 by the United States to Mexico over a period of 4 installments would be paid for the development of New Mexico and California which had become U. S. territories. A major consequence of the war was the distinguishing of the boundary dividing Mexico and the United States. When the treaty was ratified in 1854, the treaty of 1848 was revised and the boundaries were fixed and the United States agreed to pay $7,000,000 to $10,000,000 as a consideration to Mexico.The conditions set under the peace treaty were all complied with and peaceful relations have existed between the two nations since then. The Spanish American War The Spanish Am erican War was a brief yet conclusive battle which lasted from April 1898 to July 1898, during which time the Spanish Empire was destroyed and offering the United States with several new possessions in the Caribbean and the Pacific (Department Of The Navy — Naval Historical Center, 1998). Causes What basically marked the beginning of the war between the Spanish navy and the United States navy was the attack on the battleship Maine.This was an unprecedented attack on U. S. property and it incited the United States to go to war. Even though it has yet to be proven that the attack on the battleship was Spanish inspired (Buscheni, 2000), the U. S. newspapers used their influential position to paint a grim picture regarding the Spanish. Appeals placed in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines all made it appear as the regions were under Spanish oppressive rule and helped precipitating the war and providing tender to the flames.The newspapers in the United States were seeing a boom as they were the major source of information for the populace. Using their position, newspapers began writing pieces by which there sales would be maximized disregarding the truth and how events had really transpired (Buscheni, 2000). Incidents After the sinking of the battleship Maine in 15 February 1898, the Americans launched an attack in May of the same year in Manila. The battle of Manila Bay was between the Spanish fleet positioned there against the United States Navy.The battle was one sided as the Spanish fleet comprised of large wooden ships whereas the U. S. Navy consisted of smaller steel vessels. After the firing from the U. S. Navy, led by Admiral George Dewey, the Spanish fleet situated in Manila was completely destroyed. This was one of the most successful campaigns undertaken by the United States as the only casualty during this campaign resulted from sunstroke and not actual combat (Independence Hall Association). Another expedition was launched in Cuba under the c ommand of General William Shafter, who led a force which was vastly outnumbered 7 to 1.The true glory of the Cuban expedition is accredited to a group of fighters referred to as the Rough Riders, who comprised of cowboys, adventurous college students and ex-convicts who had volunteered for the cause. The Rough Riders, Shafter’s forces and 2 African American regiments all collaborated in charging up San Juan Hill and bottling the Spanish in the Santiago Harbor. The Spanish lost this war when the Spanish fleet was destroyed by the American forces. ConsequencesThe United States received the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico after the Treaty of Paris was signed which basically awarded the victors. Cuba attained independence after this war and Spain was given $20 Million to recover its losses from these battles. Yet however, the key consequence of the Spanish American War was the proof of the strength of journalism in the United States. The effectiveness of the newspapers to influ ence the populace into thinking about right and wrong and coming up with conclusions based on what they wished to happen was evident in this war.Another consequence of this war could be the realization of the expanding American empire, as the desire to â€Å"free† Cuba from oppressive Spanish rule was replaced by the occupation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines by the United States. The U. S. sentiment supported the expansions and it is evident to this day of the urge of United States to occupy other countries to provide â€Å"peace† and â€Å"freedom†. Jomini and Clausewitz Fundamental Principles of War Swiss wrier Antoine- Henri Jomini and Prussian Carl von Clausewitz were military theorists who became popular during the era of the French Revolution and Napolean.Both have been highly influential in framing military thinking. The theories presented by both Jomini and Clausewitz are seen as either exact opposites of each other or as identical in most respects. The reason behind such a conflicting view is due to the similar background shared by the two theorists. Both had a common historic interest in the campaigns led by Frederick the Great, both shared long personal experience in the Napoleonic wars (even though both were on different sides), and both read each other’s books.After taking into account the mentioned reasons it comes as no surprise as both theorists saw war in the same light, just from different angles (Bassford, 1993). Fundamental Differences between the two theorists In its most basic form, both theorists were on opposing sides of each other during the French Napoleonic era. Jomini acted as an interpreter and general for the French forces, while Clausewitz had fought numerous times against the French being in the Prussian army. Both held a differing perspective regarding the concepts related to the history and role of the military.Clausewitz book, On War, clearly indicated that history was a dynamic process and it should not be looked upon with a static world view as values, standards and situations differ with respect to the context of the times. His theories bring to light a concept which states that war can vary its form depending on the circumstances in which it is being fought, hence the nature of the policy and the society within it is waged is crucial to take into account and should not be overlooked as a constant. On the other hand, Jomini’s views regarding war were simplistic in nature and were static.He recognized war as a battle of superior minds, in the form of military generals and heroes, and reflected that war was beyond normal people’s comprehension. He referred to war as a â€Å"drama† with differences in wars arising due to differing technologies, political motivations and people involved. His work was thus more appealing to military educators as its purpose was to teach practical lessons to officers of a superior grade. Even though the philosophies of b oth theorists differed, both discussed the same materials in their works which were practically applicable to scenarios which may arise during wars.Similarities and Sharing of Opinions Initially Jomini appeared to be a role model for Clausewitz, as in Clausewitz first book â€Å"Principles of War†, we can see the references and acknowledgements Clausewitz aimed towards Jomini (Handel). Both also shared a lot of similar concepts and terminologies which reflected on their acceptance of the others opinion. The fundamental Jomini theory related to warfare which lies in accordance with the theory proposed by Clausewitz was the concept of the centre of gravity.Both theorists shared the opinion that all armies have a central point where if they were attacked then the outcome would turn in favor of the attacker. Yet in due time Clausewitz began to think otherwise. His argument was that Jomini did not take into account the external variables which could not be calculated such as the m orals of the soldiers, the level of motivation, and other psychological factors. These arguments were however unjust as Jomini identified morale of the soldiers and other such concepts in his work the â€Å"Summary of the Art of War†.Yet this was published after Clausewitz’ death and were after Jomini had read â€Å"On War†. Relevance to Today’s World In truth the theories discussed by Jomini are more popularly enforced in today’s world rather than the works of Clausewitz which is in one way a disadvantage as war has become overly simplistic in nature not taking into account values and other humanistic factors. Becoming purely mathematical and artistic in nature has cost us humanity’s values. In today’s volatile environment we find coexistence between the two approaches.We can find instances where the Clausewitz approach is applied where wars are fought along the grounds of being righteous and to further humanistic elements (such as t he Afghan war and Iraq invasion), whereas other times we find the human element entirely lacking (the Turks and Kurd war). Both the theories are applicable as taking into account the Clausewitz belief that wars should be taken in context to the situation and not as a point in time, the theories adapted by leading strategists fall into a category which is a mixture of both the theorists views.References Bassford, C. (1993). Jomini And Clausewitz: Their Interaction. 23rd Meeting of the Consortium on Revolutionary Europe . Georgia State University . Berton, P. (1988). Flames across the Border . Buscheni, J. (2000). Remember the Maine. Retrieved March 22, 2009, from The Spanish American War: http://www. smplanet. com/imperialism/remember. html Cooper, J. (1997). The Rise of the National Guard: The Evolution of the American Militia, 1865-1920. Nebraska Press. Department Of The Navy — Naval Historical Center. (1998, October 16).EVENTS — Spanish-American War. Retrieved March 22, 2009, from Naval Historical Center: http://www. history. navy. mil/photos/events/spanam/eve-pge. htm Galafilm. (n. d. ). The War of 1812: Introduction. Retrieved March 22, 2009, from Galafilm. com: http://www. galafilm. com/1812/e/intro/index. html Handel, M. I. Masters of War. Routledge. Independence Hall Association. (n. d. ). The Spanish American War and its Consequences. Retrieved March 22, 2009, from U. S. History: http://www. ushistory. org/us/44d. asp Son of the South. (2003). The Mexican War.Retrieved March 22, 2009, from SonoftheSouth. com: http://www. sonofthesouth. net/mexican-war/war. htm Soto, M. (2006, March). The Aftermath of War: A Legacy of the US-Mexican War. Retrieved March 22, 2009, from The U. S. -Mexican War: http://www. pbs. org/kera/usmexicanwar/aftermath/legacy. html Telzrow, M. E. (2006, May 1). Citizen Soldiers: the militia: the story of America's citizen soldiers shows that the militia and the second amendment are not obsolete. The populace at large w ill always fulfill essential militia functions. The New American .

Friday, September 27, 2019

The Middle East in World Affairs Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Middle East in World Affairs - Research Paper Example On the other hand, the increased freedom of movement present a number of challenges most of which have stifled the growth and development of most of the countries in the Arab region key among which include. The increased infiltration of organized terror groups, the Al-Qaida the most feared terror organization in the world managed to increase its membership in most countries within the Arab continent thereby presenting a major security threat to most of the Arab countries. This has made most of these countries un-governable making them more susceptible for foreign influence. Such terror gangs took over major businesses in the country thereby having exclusive control of the economy (SalameÃŒ  43). This has stifled the economic growth in the region besides spoiling the diplomatic relations between most Arab countries and most of the western countries that feel threatened by the increased terrorist activity in the Arab peninsula. Seclusion of the Arab culture, the increased interaction within he Arab community resulted in the development of more cohesive community that did not necessarily require foreign influence from either the west or other eastern countries. The Arab communities therefore limited their interaction to themselves thus fostering the development of the Islamic culture in the region. The countries have Islamic legal mechanisms while the markets have Islamic economic legislation thereby making it extremely difficult for other more liberal cultures and enterprises to thrive in the regions. Most of the Arab countries have oil as the only natural resource; fortunately, the oil is in sustaining quantities and most of them survive in proceeds from oil alone. However, instead of having prosperous economies, the countries face economic and security challenges all arising from the trade in oil.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Criminological Theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Criminological Theory - Essay Example The biological perspectives on criminality holds that criminal behavior is caused by physiological factors that are rooted in an individual , the Sociological Development theory provides an integrated approach on the cause of crime in society as an interaction between an individuals and the societies social structures and the Psychological perspective on crime views deviancy and deviant behavior as the product of dysfunctional personalities in an individual. I have utilized the strain theory by Robert Merton as an example of sociological perspective on crime, the Somatotype theory by William Sheldon for the case of biological perspective and the Psychoanalytic theory by Sigmund Freud as an example to Psychological perspective on crime. All this theories will seek to exemplify what cause crime and deviancy in society. This paper will look into various theory of crime in the society that have been put forward to explain causes of crime and deviant behavior and provide an example for each category presented .The theories that seek to explain crime and causes of criminal behavior in society are categorized in biological, sociological or psychological theories of crime. Sociological theories of crime are categorized into four groups namely, the social process theory, the rational theory, the social conflict theory and the social structure theory. The four theories are further categorized as social disorganization theory and the strain theory. The social disorganization theories focus on conditions prevailing in urban centers that influence crime. This theory presupposes that high unemployment, low income levels, large number of single parent households and high college drop outs contributes to crime. The strain theories on the other hand stresses that crime is caused by the existence of conflict between the goals and the legal means that

Ursula Burns Week 9 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Ursula Burns Week 9 - Essay Example She always represents the views of her workers and encourages them all through (Lussier & Achua, 2013). This is considering that she wants them to achieve success in their daily routines and aims at fostering their great abilities at work. She constantly aims at gaining extra success. In this regard, it is true that she represents all the above mentioned behavioral components. Yes. I believe that Burns shows excellent qualities of a servant leader, which makes her fit the bill. It is not possible to leave out the fact that she was brought up by a single mother who endeavored to see her children become successful in life and live better lives. She managed to set herself apart from other individuals placed in the same ranks with her. Above all, Burns had a chance to do for other people what her mother did for her (Lussier & Achua, 2013). Based on my knowledge of Ursula I believe that she meets the criteria for all the 12 qualities presented. Narrowing down to a particular quality would only deny her the great qualities she deserves. First, she shows that she had bought into the vision of the company. Specially, Burns desires to see the company grow and develop into a bigger and better one than it has ever been before (Lussier & Achua, 2013). She hopes that her employees will acquire significant achievements in the company as well. It is true that Burns is an excellent speaker and gifted communicator. This is considering that she managed to climb fast the management ladder at Xerox on account of her exceptional communication skills. Above all, she is endowed with out of the ordinary ethical attributes and self-certainty. This is evident in the subject that she never showed any signs of fear her skills or knowledge. She consistently shared her mind and presented her individual ideas without any worry. Ultimately, it i s her confidence that enabled people around her to confide in her without a doubt. Based on the facts of the case, Burns derives her personal

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Organisational Analysis - The impact of leadership styles on Assignment

Organisational Analysis - The impact of leadership styles on organizational effectiveness - Assignment Example Transactional leadership and transformational leadership are closely related units of leadership; however, they are distinct dimensions. Jack Welch, former CEO of General Electric, had traits that made him an effective leader and he combined transformational and transactional leadership styles, which helped him, turn GE into a success story. Leadership is the ability to impact a group towards the attainment of goals (Kiger 2010, 25). General Electric is a corporation, whose main objective is to generate profits, which will be pleasing to the shareholders (Brady 2010, 26). Jack Welch influenced his team to achieve this goal, which was evident in the increased market share, profits and revenues. In 1981, the company had a market value of 13 billion USD when Welch became the CEO. However, this grew to more than 400 billion USD when Welch retired. Welch possessed some traits that ensured his success as a leader. According to the Trait Theory, there are six traits, which are frequently associated with leadership. These traits are: desire to lead; energy and ambition; integrity and honesty; intelligence; self-confidence and job-relevant knowledge. Welch is a competitor; hence, full of ambitions. These ambitions are translated into ideas, and then decisions, which are eventually, implemented that saw the turnaround of GE. Jack Welch believed in energizing his followers in working hard to increase the performance of the company. Being full of energy, he seldom ran out of the excitated energy that was necessary to push his employees to reach their potential. The self-confidence of Welch enabled him to take risks, which even meant the falling of the company. He restructured the hierarchical systems, regrouping the business units and introducing an informal system of carrying out business in the company. Furthermore, Welch had an extraordinary passion, which he used to motivate and empower his employees to attain the goals of the company (Slater 2004, 19). Bass and Riggio (2006, 10) acknowledge that transformational leadership is made up of four fundamental elements, which they called the â€Å"4 I’s.† A transformatio nal leader has the capability to achieve superior performance through: inspirational motivation; idealized influence; individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation (Judge & Piccolo, 2004, 755). In order to effectively turn around General Electric, transformational leadership had to be an important element in Jack Welch’s leadership style. One of the critical decisions that Welch had to make as the Chief Executive Officer was to create and implement a strategy and a vision, which suited all the businesses in the company. The intention of this decision was to unify all the businesses under a similar and distinct banner (Abetti 2006, 78). Jack Welch developed a three circle model, whose function was to ensure that all the businesses within the company fitted in one of the categories. These categories were: the main business, which the Power Generation production was part of, differentiated by restrained investments and returns was carefully selected; the high-tech bu sinesses, which had a high growth, comprising of Medical Systems or Plastics, more often than not had negative cash flows and demanded heavy investments; services, which incorporated General Electric Capital and other businesses, which were typified by high returns for

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Popular Indian Religion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Popular Indian Religion - Essay Example Translation of a segment included in this Vedic literature â€Å"Âpastamba's Yagà ±a-Paribhà ¢shà ¢-Sà »tras† was conducted by F. Max Muller which was related with the ‘General Rules of the Sacrifice’. ‘Yagà ±a’ or sacrifice in Sutra I of this literature is stated as an act to offer or rather to surrender, i.e. ‘pruputti’ of a living or a non-living object to the God (Muller, 2004). ‘Yagà ±a’ is made to the God or Goddess with the expectation to attain a reward in terms of blessings. These rewards have often been termed to be related with the ‘path to heaven’, prosperity or ‘samridhi’ and absolute enlightenment or ‘samyak-sambodhi’. The Sutras in â€Å"Âpastamba's Yagà ±a-Paribhà ¢shà ¢-Sà »tras† reveal a variety of rituals to perform sacrifice in order to satisfy the worshiped God or Goddess. Rituals and objects for the ‘Yagà ±a’ differ according to the God or Goddess and similarly the process also varies in each case. In the traditional art of Hinduism, the rituals of sacrifice also differed on the basis of the caste system, i.e. Brà ¢hmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra (Oldenberg, 1892). ... The importance of sacrifice and the raison d'etre of the ritual has also been explicitly defined in all the four main Vedas of Hindu Shastra, i.e. Rig, Yajur, Sama, and Atharva Vedas (Oldenberg, 1892). It is in this context that the Sutras mentioned in the literature had a significant impression on the society during the traditional period where Brahmanas and Kshatriyas were termed to be the higher castes possessing the rights to perform every kind of sacrifice and thus were referred to be better connected with the spiritual world in comparison to Vaisyas and Sudras. In relation to the influences of the rituals mentioned in the sutras on the Hindu society and from an ethical point of view it is quite apparent that â€Å"Apastamba's Yagna-Paribhasha-Sutras† played a crucial role in introducing hierarchical caste systems in the then Hindu society. On the similar context, in the â€Å"Grihya Sutras† of Gabhila in Kandika 5, it has been stated that a worshiper should even s acrifice a ‘black-cow’ or a ‘white-cow’ in order to please God and thus barricade the harms caused due to Asvattha, Palaksha, Nyagrodha, and Udumbara to the house. Notably, these are termed to be the favourite trees of Surya, Yama, Varuna, and Pragapati (Muller, 2004). The question that arises in this context relates to the issue where on one hand the religion tends to term cow as a sacred animal and similarly teaches to have mercy on every living creature on earth respecting them as the blessings and creations of God himself, the rituals of the same asks to sacrifice an animal. Concerning these issues, followers of other religions such as Budhists, Jains and Ajivikas have remarked the ritual of sacrifice to be a symbol of ‘ascetic practices’.

Monday, September 23, 2019

The Houston Museum of Natural Science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Houston Museum of Natural Science - Essay Example The colours of the stones or gems are very pleasing to the eyes. It adds to the effect of the object being antique. The person in the object is wearing a gold necklace portraying a man with wealth or power. I really like the object. It is very antique. It also opens us to understanding the culture and history of Ukraine. The image shows us that the people in earlier times already are very creative. They incorporated animal sculptures and sacred symbols. 2. This art piece shows us that Texas has an epic history and a diverse geography. The image shows us three different persons. I believe these persons are three of the most popular legendary persons in Texas. Though I am not familiar with the history and legends of the State of Texas, this art piece shows us that the people in Texas knew how to give respect and pay tribute to their legends or heroes. The image shows the max of the state and three persons. The three persons are painted naturally by the painter. The two persons looked l ike they were wealthy and powerful. The third person looked like a leader of the army. The map of Texas was used a background of the three persons. This just shows that Texas has a lot of legendary people. I liked how the painter wanted to communicate to the people who are looking at his art work. Even at first look, you will really think that those persons in the image are known in their state and might have contributed greatly in the history of their place.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Perceptions of Children who Present Challenging Behavior Essay Example for Free

Perceptions of Children who Present Challenging Behavior Essay Challenging Behavior among children stems out from various intricate and interrelated factors. Often times, the family and the educators are not able to properly address the needs of these children due to the lack of information, education and support. Strain and Joseph (2004) revealed that 73% of educators perceived that challenging behaviors among children has been significantly increasing. But surprisingly, educators are facing problems and some are even not that willing to help and assist children with challenging behavior. Strain and Joseph (2004) 70% revealed that teachers who handle students with challenging behavior claimed that children with such make them feel stressed, while 60% said that it has a negative effect on their job satisfaction. The case of June (Laursen, 2005) reveals how educators perceive children with challenging behavior, and how a child who encounters behavior difficulties relates with her peers and her educators. Most of her teachers are not that positive in terms of doing an extra work in terms of helping her overcome her difficulties in school because of her attitude. As such, an education plan was set in order to help her. June was made to sign a behavioral contract that furthers the agreement that she should stay awake in school, not yell at adults, not assault anyone and attend the group meeting all day (Laursen, 2005, para 2). According to Reichle and Wacker (1997), the most effective venue for the assessment of challenging behavior could be conducted in natural environments such as home, school and local community (para 2). also emphasized that Communications Based Interventions are the best approach in terms of dealing with challenging behavior (para 4). The Positive Behavior Support (PBS) is tailored to meet the specific needs of the child and also takes into careful consideration all of the contexts in which problems with regard to challenging behaviors emerge. The model devised by Dunlap and Fox (1999) as cited from Fox, Dunlap and Powell (2002) creates an Individualized Support Program (ISP) that seeks to help the family and the childs care givers in order to change his or her difficult behavior.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Greenhouse Gas Emissions in House Construction

Greenhouse Gas Emissions in House Construction Background and Justification of project Buildings are climate modifiers which provide indoor environments. These are essential to the well being and the social and economic developments of mankind. However, they are also intensive resources consumers and hence, they require enormous amount of materials and energy in their construction and maintenance. During the construction period and while they are demolished at the end of their life, buildings generate huge amount of solid wastes and various types of emissions, such as particulates, noise and various kinds of liquid effluents. According to Hall (2003 ) and Anink (1996) the building industry accounts for around one-tenth of the world’s GDP, at least 7% of its jobs, half of all resources used and up to 40% of energy used and green house gas emission. Hill and Bowen (1997) discussed how the applications of modern technology, together with the increasing population, are leading to the rapid depletion of the earth’s physical resources. Hall (2003) also estimated that by 2025, the world population would reach 8 billion and 98% of the increase in the population would be in developing countries. With time, the construction industry is expanding and the rate of resource depletion is not sustainable. As it can be imagined, construction materials and products are essential to life – with respect to both buildings and infrastructure. Humans spend around 80% of their time (on average) in some type of building or on roads. Construction products play a major role in improving the energy efficiency of buildings and also contribute to economic prosperity (Edwards, 2003). On the other hand, construction products also produce a considerable impact on the environment. The Worldwatch Institute estimates that 40% of the world’s materials and energy is used in buildings. However, according to Anink (1996), the construction sector is responsible for 50% of the material resources taken from nature and 50% of total waste generated. Also, Rodman and Lenssen (1993) pointed that buildings account for one-sixth of the world’s freshwater withdrawals, one-quarter of its wood harvest, and two-fifths of its material and energy flows. The impact of construction products relative to t he overall lifetime impact of a building is currently 10-20%. For infrastructure this value is significantly higher, greater than 80% in some cases. In Mauritius, nearly all the main resources in a building are imported, e.g. steel and cement. An average of 600 000 tonnes of cement are imported annually in Mauritius. As our country is currently going through a boom in the construction sector, the figures are expected to increase. The price of crude oil has more than  doubled on the world market during the past years. This has had a direct impact on nearly all the construction materials which are imported and produced locally. While choosing for construction materials, many do not think about the impacts that the material have on the environment. The environmental impacts of building materials are increasing day by day. Therefore, environmental impacts have become an increasingly important consideration in selecting building materials for the construction. Consequently, life cycle assessment has become an important tool in analysing natural resources and emissions generated in manufacturing processes. Winistorfer and Zhangjing (2004) said that life cycle assessment refers to the analysis of the environmental impact of a product through every step of its life. It includes environment impacts while the product is manufactured, used and disposed. The objective of a life cycle analysis is to quantify environmental influences of a product through input and output analysis. Aim and Objectives The aim of the project was to calculate all the resource energy and associated greenhouse gas emissions linked to construction of a typical residential house in Mauritius. Simapro Life Cycle Analysis software was used to calculate all the resource energy and greenhouse gas emission from the building. The objectives were to: quantify all the resources required for the construction of the typical residential house estimate the weight of the building minimise the use of resources in building thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emission and ensuring a cleaner production. To satisfy the aim and objectives of the project, a virtual house was selected to carry out the analysis. The house used was obtained from the central statistics office. It represents the most common type of building in Mauritius. The size of the house is 128m2. All the quantities of materials used for the construction of the building were calculated. Using Simapro life cycle assessment software, the energy requirement and CO2 emission of each material was obtained. Also, the weight of the house was calculated using the unit weight of reinforced concrete and concrete blocks. Structure of Report A literature search was done and the findings were included in chapter 2. The latter describes how the building consumes all the different resources, energy requirements and the environmental impacts of building. Also, the benefits of sustainable building and of recycling waste, in order to recover the energy, were discussed. A detailed methodology, which was adopted to achieve the aim and objectives of the study, was described in chapter 3. The key results and discussions were presented in chapter 4. Finally, conclusions, recommendations and further works were dealt with in chapter 5. Literature Review Building: direct consumption of resources There is growing concern that human activity is affecting the global and local ecosystem severely enough to potentially cause permanent changes to some ecosystems  and potentially cause them to crash. Boyle (2005) suggested that there must be a reduction factor of 20 to 50 in resource consumption and efficiency in order to achieve technologies which are sustainable. Sustainable technologies will be particularly significant to the construction industry which is a major consumer of resources. The pie chart below gives a repartition of all the primary materials resources used in the construction industry in 1998. Figure 2.1 Repartition of primary resources in the construction industry (Source: Construction Resource Efficiency Review, 2006) Despite the fact that every house makes use of different quantity of resources, according to US DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network, a standard wood-frame house uses 4047 m2 (one acre) of forest and produces 3-7 tonne of waste during construction. Lippiatt (1999) stated that building consumes 40% of the gravel, sand and stone, 25% of the timber, 40% of the energy and 16% of the water used globally per year. Boyle (2005) estimated that in UK itself, about 6 tonnes of building materials were used annually for every member of the population. Much of the waste and consumption of resources occurred during the extraction and processing of the raw materials. For example, mining requires water and energy, consumes land and produces significant quantities of acidic contaminated gas, liquid and solid wastes (Boyle, 2005). A second example which can be used is that of timber. The cultivation of trees requires significant space for cultivation and amount of fertilizers. Moreover, the harvesting and processing phases of timber make use of considerable amounts of energy. Trees are also grown in plantations which require old-growth forest and significantly reduce biodiversity. Energy is also used extensively in the transportation of raw materials. Fossils fuels are used for the transportation, extraction and harvesting of the material, thereby releasing greenhouse gases and a range of air pollutants. Processing of metals and mineral often results in major gas emissions. The concrete industry is a major producer of carbon dioxide whereas on the other hand, aluminium smelting produces perfluorocarbons (Boyle, 2005). These two are very powerful greenhouse gases. According to the Construction Resource Efficiency Information Review (2006), emissions to the air by the construction industry in 1998 were just over 30 million tonnes in total, of which over 97% was carbon dioxide. Of the 30 million tonnes of emissions, over 70% came from mineral extraction and product manufacture. The table below shows the total carbon dioxide equivalent emissions generated by the construction industry in UK. Table 2.1 Carbon dioxide equivalent emissions generated by the construction industry in UK (Source: Construction Resource Efficiency Information Review, 2006) Emission generated by: Tonnage (Kt ) Mineral extraction, product and material manufacture 19,817 Transport of product and material 2,543 Transport of secondary and recycled product 675 Construction and demolition site activity 3,764 Transport related to construction and demolition site activity 1,291 Transport of waste from product and material manufacture 20 Transport of construction and demolition waste 219 Total CO2 equivalent emissions to the atmosphere 28,327 As it can be seen, from Table 2.1, a total of 28 327 Ktonnes of CO2equivalent emissions were generated by the construction industry in UK and much of these emissions occurred during the mineral extraction and product and material manufacture. Over the lifespan of a building, the material will have to be maintained and stored in good condition whereas, in some cases, replaced. Every five to fifteen years, exterior coatings, guttering, piping, walls, and flooring will require repair or replacement. By effective maintenance, requirements for replacement are reduced by a significant amount. The decisions here are not taken by the builder or designer regardless of the original design. Concerning  the material used for the repair and the maintenance of the building, it is the owner who takes the decision. During the lifespan of a building, the overall investment of resources into the building needs to be considered (Boyle, 2005).  Buildings can be constructed and designed in such a way that they can last for more than hundred years. Additionally, many traditional buildings are designed in such a way that they can last beyond 200 years (Morel, 2001). However, many designers are now planning buildings for a lifespan of only 50 years or even less despite using durable materials requiring minimal maintenance. Such materials reduce the requirement for repairs or replacement. Hence, simply designing and maintaining a building for 400 years  rather than 50 can potentially reduce its environmental effect from material resources by up to a factor of 4 (Boyle, 2005). Energy requirements of a building Cole and Carnan (1996) found that the energy that is consumed during the life cycle of a residential building includes energy used in producing building materials and constructing the structure. Also, energy is used in occupying and maintaining the building, and in demolishing or deconstructing the structure at the end of its serviceable life. According to Cole and Carnan (1996), the energy consumed in building can be classified in three categories: energy to initially produce the building; energy to operate the building, and; energy to demolish and dispose of the building at the end of its effective life. During the extraction, processing and transportation of material as well as during the construction as mentioned earlier large amount of energy is consumed. Morel et al. (2001) found that costs could be reduced by more than a factor of 6 during construction by the use of energy of local materials. The local materials studied by Morel et al. (2001) included rammed earth, stone, timber which were compared to the use of imported concrete. Consequently, Morel et al found that the imported concrete required significant energy for processing. Treloar et al. (2001) found that, by using a concrete binder, rammed earth had an energy load equivalent to that of a brick veneer construction due to the energy  required in processing the cement. Boyle (2005) stated that energy is the major resource consumed in buildings and 90% of the energy consumption is over the operational lifespan of the building. Therefore, significant decrease in energy consumption assists in reducing the resource consumption and improving efficiency. Although a house can be designed to a totally self-sufficient condition for energy and water, much depends on the location, that is, the climate, the availability and potability of  local water sources as well as the attitude of the user. The designer or builder can incorporate some energy saving devices and design such a water heater, passive heating, and composting toilets, which are suitable for local conditions. Furthermore, such devices and designs will only be incorporated if a significant profit can be generated. Many developers resist including energy- saving measures unless they are required by local councils or are considered essentially by buyers in the local community. Cole and Kernan (1996 ) found that the energy used to heat, cool, provide artificial lighting, and power typically used appliances in buildings accounts for more than 30% of Canada’s national energy use. Approximately two-thirds of this consumption is attributed to residential buildings and the remainder to commercial buildings. The US DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network estimated that, the annual average energy consumption for one story concrete building, the annual average energy consumption is 63GJ. However, Zydeveld (1998) pointed out that up to 80% savings in heating water and improving the indoor air quality and thermal comfort could be made in the Netherlands with the inclusion of passive solar design with an additional 10% cost in construction. Therefore, savings of 90% could be achieved. Four major design principles enabled architects and builders to incorporate passive solar design  into their buildings: solar  orientation; maximizing the solar gain through low surface loss and high internal volume; high mass within the insulation and avoiding of shading. The rise in use of material in the low energy building can, however, mean that there is an increased consumption of material and energy overall. Thormark (2002) discovered that up to 45% of the total energy used is in the embodied energy in a low-energy building and that such a building could have a greater total energy use than that of a building with a higher operating energy consumption. Besides, he also said that 37-42% of the embodied  energy could be recovered  by recycling of materials. Embodied Energy According to an unknown author (2007), Embodied Energy is the amount of energy that has gone into the making of a material or things made with materials. A very high percentage of the world’s energy is derived from fossil fuels which, when burnt, release vast amounts of CO2. As the production of energy from fossil fuels is environmentally unfriendly, materials and things that have a lower embodied energy are more sustainable than those with a higher embodied energy. On average, 0.098 tonnes of CO2 are produced per gigajoule of embodied energy (Sustainable built environment 2007). Source: Sustainable Technologies (1996) Figure 2.2: Embodied Energy of the different building materials The embodied energy per unit mass of materials used in a building varies enormously from about two gigajoules per tonne for concrete, to hundreds of gigajoules per tonne for aluminium.(Figure 2.2). The reuse of materials commonly saves about 95% of embodied energy which could otherwise be wasted (Sustainable Built Environment 2007). According to Fichtner Report (1999), in Mauritius, steel is the only waste material generated from the construction industry which is recycled, implying that most of the embodied energy of the materials is wasted. Resource Efficiency in a building According to the report â€Å"Construction Resource Efficiency Review† (2006), resource efficiency is about the sustainable use of resources. Indeed, there should be effective use and management of all the resources available to the industry while at the same time optimising output and profit. There is much emphasis on the use of all the physical resources (water, energy, etc) and materials used in the production and operation cycle. As minimum resource is used in the manufacture of the product, profits can be made by increasing productivity. Resource efficiency can also be achieved by reducing the wastes. As far as the construction industry is concerned, there is a need to focus on sustainable consumption of resources. Buildings can be built with fewer resources while looking at the same time at the impacts of the building on the environment. Sustainable Buildings Buildings have a tremendous impact on our environmental quality, resource use, human health and productivity. According to Nicholas S. (2003), sustainable building meets current building needs and reduces impacts on future generations by integrating building materials and methods that promote environmental quality, economic vitality, and social benefit through the design, construction and operation of our built environment. Sustainable building, also referred as green building, involves the consideration of many issues, including land use, site impacts, indoor environment, energy and water use, lifecycle impacts of building materials, and solid waste. Benefits of Sustainable Building There are a number of environmental, social, and economic benefits which we can enjoy from a sustainable building. Miriam L. (1999) gives some benefits of sustainable building to the environment, which are as follows: air and water quality protection soil protection and flood prevention solid waste reduction energy and water conservation climate stabilization ozone layer protection natural resource conservation open space, habitat, and species/biodiversity protection Also, sustainable building can have other benefits for designers, contractors, occupants, construction workers, developers, and owners. These benefits include: Improved health, comfort, and productivity/performance As mentioned earlier, people spend 80 % of their life in some buildings. It is reported that 30 % of new and remodeled buildings worldwide may be linked to symptoms of sick building syndrome (WHO 1984). Particular Symptoms are:- Headache Eye, nose or throat irritation Dry cough Dizziness Fatigue Sensitivity to odors Sick building syndrome (SBS) is normally caused by fungi and bacteria that build up because of inadequate fresh air ventilation in structures. Therefore, improving the indoor environment of the building can reduce the effect of SBS. Lower construction costs The cost of the building can be lowered by reducing the use of material and saving on disposal costs because of recycling. For example, recycled aggregate can be used as filler material. Lower operating costs As discussed earlier in chapter 2.10, the use of energy can be reduced in a building by designing the building such that it gets maximum sunlight, and in so doing, cutting down expenses concerning electricity. This has a great impact for people with low income, who spend much of their salary in paying utility bills. Life Cycle Assessment â€Å"†¦.Life Cycle Assessment is a process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process, or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment; to assess the impact of those energy and materials used and releases to the environment; and to identify and evaluate opportunities to affect environmental improvements. The assessment includes the entire life cycle of the product, process or activity, encompassing, extracting and processing raw materials; manufacturing, transportation and distribution; use, re-use, maintenance; recycling, and final disposal†¦.† Guidelines for Life-Cycle Assessment: A Code of Practice, SETAC, Brussels (1990). There are four main components of LCA, which are as follows: Goal definition and scoping: Identify the LCAs purpose and the expected products of the study. Also, he needs to determine the boundaries and assumptions based upon the goal definition Life-cycle inventory: Quantify the raw material and energy inputs during each stage of production. Moreover, environmental releases are also taken into account. Impact analysis: Assess the impacts on human health and the environment associated with energy, raw material inputs and environmental releases quantified by the inventory. -Improvement analysis: Evaluate opportunities to reduce energy, material inputs, or environmental impacts at each stage of the product life-cycle. For this project, only the environmental impacts (carbon dioxide emission) and energy used from the manufacture of all the materials utilised in the construction of a typical residential house were considered. Construction Waste The construction energy generates an enormous amount of waste. Rogoff and Williams (1994) pointed out that in the USA, wastes from the construction industry contributed to approximately 20 %, in Australia 30% and in UK more than 50 % of the overall landfill volumes in each country. The Building Research Establishment (1982) has defined waste as the difference between materials ordered and those placed for fixing on building projects. Serpell and Alarcon (1998) defined construction waste as any material by product that does not have any residual value. But this is not true for the construction and demolition waste as much as the waste can be reduced or recycled. By reducing the level of waste in the construction industry, it benefits the environment and lowers the cost of the project. Bossink and Brouwers (1996) estimated that about 1-10% by weight of the purchase construction material leaves the site of residential projects as waste. However Guthrie et al. (1998) found that at least 10 % of all the raw materials which are delivered on most construction sites are wasted through damage, loss and over-ordering. A study carried by Dabycharun (2004), pointed out that a residential house in Mauritius generates about 0.2-0.5 tonne/m2 of waste. He carried out questionnaire interview in order to get this figure. However, the Fichtner report (1999) states that during the construction of an average private house of 140 m2, 8-10 tonne of mixed waste are generated. Skoyles and Skoyles (1987) identified two main kinds of building construction waste and finishing waste. Structure waste consists of fragments, reinforcement bars, abandoned timer plate and pieces which are generated during the finishing stage of a building. For example it comprises of surplus cement motar arising from screeding scatters over the floors inside the building. There are two distinct procedures in minimising the amount of in landfill sites through the construction process. The first one is to reduce the amount of waste generated through source reduction techniques both on site and during the design and procurement phases of a building project. The second procedure is to improve the management of the unavoidable waste generated on site. In managing the unavoidable waste, there are three options in order of preference. They are as follows: Reuse Recycling Disposal The balance between the three will depend upon the nature of the materials wasted, legislative requirements for the specific materials and the cost effectiveness of each option. The cost will in turn depend upon the availability of reusing and recycling options and the opportunities for reuse on a specific project. Recycled materials, while requiring transportation and reprocessing, consume significantly fewer resources compared to the extraction and processing of raw materials. This is particularly true for metal such as iron, copper and aluminium. These metals can be reproduced to a quality equal to that of raw material processing. Both concrete and timber can be recycled or reused but with the defect that the quality of the final product is often diminished. By crushing concrete, we can  reuse it as an aggregate for some purposes, particularly like paving (Boyle, 2005). But, it was found by Millard and al. (2004) that from the recycled aggregate found in the construction and demolition waste, concrete blocks can be manufactured. Also, coarse recycled aggregates can be used in new concrete (Limbachia, 2004). Good grade timber can be used in the making of furniture. It is strongly stated not to use supporting timber since it is difficult to determine whether a used timber beam has stress cra cks or other weak points. In other countries, plastics can be recycled into a number of construction products, including tiles, lumber, heating and wire insulation and carpet. According to Huang and Hsu (2003), each year in Taiwan over 10106 tonnes of construction material are extracted for their usage and more than 40106 tonnes of construction waste are disposed without recycling. Significant amounts of asphalt were present in the waste. However, if it was recycled, this would have decreased the amount of asphalt which was imported. Thormark  (2002) pointed out that recycled concrete, clay brick and lightweight concrete can meet the total need for gravel in new houses and in renovation. Materials and Methods The next part of the dissertation was the methodology. In this section, an analysis was carried out on the different resources used for the construction of a single-storey house and the CO2 emission from each of the different resources. Therefore, a house had to be selected to carry out the analysis Selection of a typical house The house model used for the analysis was basically a virtual detached house which occupied a space of 128.30 squares metres floor area. The floor area was measured at plinth level to the external face of the external wall. The plan of the typical house model was obtained from the Central Statistics Office which was originally provided by the Mauritius Housing Company Limited. The house represented the most common type of residential house in Mauritius. The plan of the house is found in appendix A. The building constitutes of two bedrooms, a living-dining room, a kitchen, a toilet, a bathroom, a verandah and an attached garage. It was assumed to be built up of concrete block walls, reinforced concrete flat roof, internal flush plywood doors, glazed metal openings, screened floor and roof, tiling to floor and walls of W.C, and bathroom and kitchen worktop; the ceiling and walls were rendered and painted both internally and externally. It should also be noted that in the event the single-storey building would need to be converted into a two-storey house, an additional provision of more substantial foundation and of stub columns of the roof has already been made. Calculation of different resources Various materials and other resources were needed during the construction of the house. These can be broken down in different input categories. The input categories (different components) for the construction comprised of labour, hire of plant, materials and transport. The materials were further broken down into hardcore fillings (remplissage), cement, sand, timber for carpentry and joinery, metal openings, ceramic tiles, glass and putty, plumbing, sanitary installation, electrical installation and other miscellaneous expenses. The weightage of the components, shown in table 3.0, was calculated by a private firm of Quantity Surveyors for the Central Statistics Office’s use. The firm had identified nineteen stages through which the construction of the house had gone through. The cost for each stage was calculated. Detailed cost of each inputs in terms of plant, labour, materials and transport that go into the construction of typical residential house were calculated. According to the Statician, Jagai D. (pers. Comm., 19 November 2007), the construction of the single storey building, in the year 2001, was estimated by the quantity surveyor to be Rs 550,000. the weight was calculated so that each input category represented a fraction of the price for the residential building. Table 3.0 Weightage of different Input categories (Source: construction price index,2007) Input categories Weight / % Labour Skilled workers Unskilled workers 16.8 17.7 Plant Mixer Breaker Metal plaques 0.7 0.9 1.4

Friday, September 20, 2019

Thailand Tourism Industry PESTLE Analysis

Thailand Tourism Industry PESTLE Analysis Recently globalisation has been influencing on the business all over the world and many countries have invested and been invested. However, there are many factors that effect on the international business. On this assignment, it will illustrate some external factors by using PEST analysis and some examples that are related to the tourism industries especially Thailand tourism industry due to giving the clear pictures. Firstly, political factors are crucial factors towards the stability of industries or organisations such as terrorism, demonstrations, corruption, etc. (Czinkota et al, 2009). Every country has their own law enforcement in particular parts such as corruption, working system, terrorism, immigration, etc. (Brooks et al, 2010b). There are many examples such as the illegal immigration, working overtime without paying money, hazardous waste by factories. Not only does it impact the image of tourism, but it also destroys the beautiful sceneries and environment. For example, the tourism industry in Thailand has been a detrimental effect by domestic political tension that is the big two groups called yellow-shirt and red -shirt. The main problem is originated from the different believes in politics of Thai people. According to Thaiwebsite (2010), in November 2008 yellow-shirt demonstrated and closed the Suvarnabhumi Airport which was the main international airport in Thailand. On the other hand, the red-shirt protested at the East Asia Summit that was held in Pattaya. Another unpleasant situation happened in March of this year when the red-shirt closed the main intersection at the centre of Bangkok. Three big department stores and small shops around that area had to close their businesses because of the jeopardy. Moreover, the red-shirt fought with Thai army, bombed and fired the department stores. From these situations, European and Asian Countries warned their own citizens not to come to Thailand because of uncertain situations (CNNGo, 2010). Therefore, the number of tourists was a dramatic declined from last year and it affected Thai economic especially the international investment. The tourism industry ceased growing in a short period of time and then it has steadily recovered. Secondly, economic factors are the key factor of all businesses. After World War I happened, it affected the economic around the world and it leads to an economic crisis. As a result, all countries were in big troubles such as the loss of consumer confidence, bankrupt, unemployment and the high risk in investments. Moreover, it has been the dreadfully economic cycle. For instance, the bubble economy was one of the most serious economic crises in Thailand in July, 1997. That caused the Baht currency exchange rate to be floated (Petprasert, 2000). Even though Thai Government at that time solved this problem by borrowing money from International Monetary Fund (IMF) (Chalamwong, 1998), many domestic companies went bankrupt and international companies stopped conducting businesses in Thailand due to unstable currency. Additionally, the export businesses and the tourism industry had been the most terrible effects because there were a massive number of unemployed people. Nevertheless, Thai economy has been recovered gradually since 1997 owing to the government policy. Because of it, the domestic economic was activated in order to compensate the international incomes. Thirdly, social factors which relate to three aspects including the changing of family relationships, the changing lifestyles and health (Brooks et al, 2010a). To illustrate the point, nowadays the healthier lifestyles are becoming popular. In consequence of the trend change, tourism industry should have up-to-date information to enhance the business such as organic food, sport activities and health spa. In addition, it is true that people who live different countries have different lifestyles. Businesses will be highly successful, they should be harmonised with the lifestyle of local people such as cultures, customs, traditions, believes, religions, the ways of lives, environment, etc. Besides, it is becoming more intended in today s world so as to show the social responsibilities which are more concerned by tourists. Climate change is the main problem that the majority of Thai people has worried about. The latest example of the impact of environmental change is Global warming which is a significant global problem. Nalinee Tongtaem, who works for Biological Centre academic, claimed that the coral reefs were dead twice or third as many as before due to the temperature change in the sea (MCOT online news, 2010). As a result, the number of tourists might be declined and this problem will not only affect the economic, but impact on our lifestyles. Another example is the tsunami in 2004 which was the worst phenomena that has been happened to Thailand because a large numbers of tourists and citizens were died. Besides, the surroundings as well as the properties such as houses, hotels and shops were destroyed by the tsunami (United Nations Thailand, 2008). Although Thai government took responsibility for assisting people in their living and their properties, several tourists still concern about the same situation that might occur again. Additionally, the target group of Tourism in all parts of Thailand can be divided into 3 groups that consist of European, Asian and America market. It is considered that the number of international tourists has a tendency to decrease which affacts the national income of Thailand. Because of the fact that European countries are facing the economic crisis, European people are liable to economize by travelling in Europe countries rather than other countries. Furthermore, the Asian market which is the most sensitive tourist group is tending not to come to Thailand owing to the uncertain politic situation in Bangkok. However, the unemployed rate in America Market is still high. As a result, the number of tourists will become fluctuated. Finally, technological factors have an effect on the improvement. If the government chooses the perfect techniques, tourism industry will be successful. In the twentieth century, many countries including Thailand pay attention to information technology in order to enhance and improve their countries. To give some examples, these are online booking, online shopping, online banking, the development of aeroplanes, etc. Recently, the number of tourists that uses online booking has been increased significantly. Thus, some travel agents might be overthrown because of few customers. In addition, there are many airlines that provide their services in the intensively competitive market especially low-cost airlines. This is an advantage for the tourists and it will be a good impact on the tourism industry. However, tourism industry in Thailand has not been well developed because of poor government support. Comparing with European countries, tourism industry in Thailand is underdevelopment. Con sequently, it should be improved significantly. Conclusion In the next 5 to 10 years, it seems to be seen that tourism industry in Thailand might be a gradual increase. Because these factors as mentioned above will not be able to resolve easily in the short term, they are unpredictable factors such as political and environmental problems that all governments sometimes cannot control. From my prospective, a political factor is the most important factor because it influences on the other factors. For instance, if the government is incapable of controlling the political situations, it will have an adverse impact on the economic causing the domestic and international businesses suffer at the setback. Furthermore, it will lead to social problems which are unemployment, the financial problems, committing a crime respectively. Moreover, in case of the inappropriate policy, technologies might not be developed due to lacking of capital. Although, many people have concerned about environmental troubles, these cannot be solved if the law enforcement is not able to use appropriate owing to interfering in politics. For example, the influential person in politics uses the power arbitrarily to build the hotel near the sea without disposing of waste. The problem is the dangerous household waste from the hotels will destroy the local ecology and have impact on the natural environment. Thus, all these difficulties as mentioned above affact the investment in the Tourism Industries.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Water Pollution Must Be Stopped :: Environmental Pollution Essays

Water pollution must be stopped. Pollution of lakes rivers, streams, and oceans has been killing land and water animals for years. Polluting water is a horrible act and will be stopped. Water pollution kills all kinds of animals every year. Just the EXXON VALDEZ oil spill near anchorage Alaska caused over 3,000 otters to die 36,000 different kinds of seabirds were killed and over 100 eagles. Oil spills are one of--if not the worst types of pollution. They happen most often in the ocean and then get spread around by tides and currents where they enter streams and rivers and cover everything. They kill life and pollute more in a short amount of time than pesticides and human waste combined in about 1 year. (See graph on page 2 for more inf.) Radioactive Waste is a very serious problem polluting the lakes and oceans. Submarines release some radioactivity into the water. If a submarine ever crashed enough radioactivity would be released to destroy a region of about 300 sq. miles (this happens because of the nuclear engines) Human waste is when people dump their.... deification in the water and have sewer lines leading to water which also pollutes a lot (little streams lead to big lakes). Human waste is also when we dump garbage in the ocean because we cannot find places on land to dump it. Some more types of pollution are.. Infectious Gases, Plant nutrients that can simulate growth of aquatic plants which then interfere with water uses and, when decaying, deplete the dissolved oxygen and produce nasty odors. Exotic organic chemicals including: pesticides, various industrial products, detergents. petroleum, inorganic materials, nuclear power plants, industrial sites, medical and scientific use of radioactive materials. Water pollution was originally caused by need of space (to dump trash). I can say that the major sources (in general) that cause water pollution are: Municipal, Agricultural, and Industrial. The dumping of garbage was caused by the lack of space in landfills. Instead of recycling some people started dumping the trash in the water, that slowed in 1956 when the Federal Water Pollution Control Act was created. It slowed almost to a halt in 1977 when the Clean Water Act was created. But, it still happens. Company's still dump waste in the ocean, streams, and rivers even though it is against the law. Eventually water pollution will cause there to be no life in the ocean, lakes, and rivers.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Eagle Poem Essay -- Literary Analysis

â€Å"Explication† In the poem by Joy Harjo called â€Å"Eagle Poem,† Harjo talks about prayer and life and how they revolve around mother-nature. She suggests that while being one with nature, we feel we are in a place in which we haven’t imagined and the things in which we would love to do in that magnificent and calming place. After one reads the poem, he/she enjoys the lyrical type of it. This is because â€Å"Eagle Poem† sticks to one idea and extends it throughout the entire poem. For instance, it talks about prayer, nature, and animals from start to finish. In the first three lines of the poem, Harjo talks about opening oneself up to nature where you feel yourself. She does this by connecting the human body to the sky, earth, sun, and moon. The next six lines talk about the concepts and aspects during prayer and how you are in a whole other place. In these first nine lines, Harjo uses repetition with prayer and shows parallelism with the peacefulness nature and prayer can bring to oneself. Harjo also uses similes in lines ten and twenty two. She compares the circle of life to that of the eagle as well as the eagle to an angle. Joy Harjo did a tremendous job in explaining to the reader that one can relax oneself through prayer and nature. We can all relate to the idea of allowing ourselves into places not yet imagined and feeling at peace. She connects the idea of peacefulness with nature and prayer in a well thought language that allows her to still connect herself to her Native American ancestry. Harjos metaphors and images of nature and prayer are effective in getting her point across as well as making a deeper connection with her Muskogee Creek heritage. Before reading this poem, one might not be too intrigued by its title, but ... ...t really catch the readers’ attention. Although she wasn’t writing in the major eras, she did write in the era where the style of writing was changing. This allowed her to be able to write freely and truly express herself through her words and illusions. Works Cited "Characteristics of Modern Poetry - Poetry - Questions & Answers." ENotes - Literature Study Guides, Lesson Plans, and More. Web. 09 Jan. 2012. . "Eagle Poem." Poetry Out Loud. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. . "HARJO, JOY (1951- )." Oklahoma State University - Library - Home. Web. 04 Jan. 2012. . "Joy Harjo: The Poetry Foundation." Poetry Foundation. Web. 04 Jan. 2012. .

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Conclusion Life of Pi Essay

Well this is it, we’re done, and WOW what an ending. I can’t exactly say i was expecting that but does it ever make you think! Sure many would have loved a conclusive conclusion, but personally I enjoy the abstract ending. In the end Martel allows you to choose not only how the novel ends, but also what has happened the entire plot. Through this Martel attempts to depict how a story in one’s eyes may be completely different from another, depending on the person. How one interprets a story is solely up to the individual and as a result the ending puts the entire story up for debate. Personally I feel that the story including the animals is â€Å"what really happened† simply because that is what i choose to believe. The concept of choosing, or in Martel’s words rather â€Å"leaping†towards decisions is one in which Martel forces the reader to endure in the end of the story. Rather than just cruising through the book (life) Martel forces the reader to make a decision, whatever that decision may be. Besides the ending blowing my mind, throughout the book i greatly appreciated Martel’s writing skills. The insertion of extremely descriptive imagery allows the reader to greatly empathize Pi’s story, resulting in a dire want to continue reading. Overall I greatly enjoyed the novel and would greatly recommend it. P.S I would expand on what has happened in the recent chapters but do not want to ruin the book for anyone who has not read it yet.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Democratizing American Education Essay

For years, the American education system has been plagued with criticism. In 1983, for instance, a report entitled â€Å"A Nation At Risk† from the National Commission on Excellence in Education warned that â€Å"the educational foundations of our society are presently being eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity that threatens our very future as a Nation and a people. † (p. 4) Two decades later, America’s public schools have barely made progress in addressing the problems posed by the NCEP report. This is evidenced by the continued inability of most schools to produce students who are mathematically and linguistically competitive enough for the demands of the American labor market. (Du Pont, 2003) Likewise, the rapid increase in immigrant population has brought the problems of the American educational system to the fore by heightening the impact of the socio-economic divide on individuals’ access to quality education. In â€Å"Lives on the Boundary,† author and educator Mike Rose (2008) describes how the changing landscape of America is pushing the need for reforms in the educational system in order to adapt to the diverse realities of a multi-cultural American background. However, Rose also contends that some proposals being advanced supposedly to democratize education, may actually increase rather than narrow down the gap between the rich and the poor, and further exclude the people who have been historically marginalized both literally and figuratively from the sphere of learning and education. (as cited in Lunsford and Ruszkiewicz, 2008, p. 99) One finds it difficult to disagree with Rose’ doubts about the ability of the proposal to return to what he calls the canonical tradition in the university and in American education in general, to turn the quality of American education around. Rose shows the problems of the proposal to return to what he calls the canonical tradition of teaching by presenting the realities of three immigrant students and an African-American student, individuals with vastly differing cultural backgrounds from the predominantly white, middle-class America. In this situation, it is doubtful that canonical teaching would be able to address the increasing need for student learning that is based not only on literacy but also the unique needs of the students for social inclusion and empowerment. Rose argues, for instance, that the obsession among influential educators and policymakers to â€Å"define achievement and excellence in terms of the acquisition of a historically validated body of knowledge† (as cited in Lunsford and Ruszkiewicz, 2008, p. 98) tend to push the marginalized more deeply into the margins rather than brings them into the social fabrics of American society. Indeed, despite the democratic trapping that has been thrown over efforts to establish uniform standards and benchmarks of learning, at the heart of the canonical tradition is the tendency to homogenize student thinking and learning. The superficial commitment to democratizing education is illustrated in the way that America’s education leaders pay lip service to democratic ideals while continuing to deny the rich cultural diversity and the individuality of each student in terms of his or her learning needs. One of the educators that Rose mentions is Paulo Freire, who acknowledged that real education must be relevant to the lives of the masses if is to have any meaning at all. In this sense, a return to an education that is based on the â€Å"Great Books† or â€Å"the canons† would be tantamount to regression. Such proposals also inevitably dilute public debate and understanding of the structural flaws of the American education system through its naive and myopic assumption that the failures of American education are caused by a failure in instructional methods alone. However, scholars have pointed out that the deterioration of the American educational system is pedagogical in nature. Smith, et. al. (2004) contend, for instance, that the decay in American education arises from the â€Å"increased influence of corporations† (p. 193) on educational policy. Consequently, the leaders of the American educational system suffer from a simplistic view of education in which it is seen as a nothing more than a means of training the next generation of workers, cogs in the great American industrial empire, in order to sustain America’s supremacy over the world. The United States’ alarm at the increasing â€Å"mediocrity† of American schools was rooted more in its economic concerns as the world’s economic giant rather than concerns for cultivating a better American society based on American values and ideals. Clearly, the continuing failure of the current system of education points only to its inability to provide students with the best learning opportunities; and the best learning opportunities are necessarily the ones in which they feel have connection to their realities, which have relevance in their lives and in their struggles for a sense of identity and belonging. In this aspect, the very benchmark used to measure student learning in American schools must be questioned and examined based on how these are used to tailor students based on the mold of the ideal worker and punish students who cannot cope with such corporatist educational standards because they learn differently or they have trouble understanding the new culture they are in. Even the word â€Å"mediocrity† or the label â€Å"inferior† carries with it the bias of class, race, and gender. Clearly, these labels are usually attached to individuals or groups who are impoverished and who cannot conform to the ideal of white supremacy and strength. Thus, meaningful education must â€Å"consider the context in which it occurs,† (Rose, as cited in Lunsford and Ruszkiewicz, 2008, p. 101) More importantly, appreciating the nature of literacy necessitates an understanding of how it can be used as a tool for empowering the marginalized, the uprooted, and the disenfranchised on the basis of social inclusion and identity formation. In this sense, standardized tests and benchmarks can never really measure what students learn. Instead, educators should create and utilize learning benchmarks that are based on the concrete learning needs and interests of students. Thus, Rose’ discussion of the continuing marginalization of the immigrant and â€Å"cultural minorities† in the field of education reflects the social inequities which underlie the problem of American education. Further, the author’s criticism of the additional threats posed by moves for canonical-oriented reforms shows how the educational problem lies in the general philosophical problem of the meaning and relevance of education for every citizen. In the efforts to institute reforms that would democratize and enhance access to American education, there is nothing more defeating than the assumption that a single American experience exists to which the entire American society can relate to. Another faulty assumption is that every single American student can be taught to behave and to think based on the ideal male, white, and middle-class American. It is this multi-dimensional nature of America that the leaders of the American educational system have time and again failed to acknowledge. It is this failure by American leaders to come to grips with the diverse nature of American reality that is the real cause of the growing mediocrity in American schools. Works Cited: Du Pont, P. (2003). Two decades of mediocrity. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 30, 2008 from http://www. opinionjournal. com/columnists/pdupont/? id=110003445 National Commission on Excellence in Education (1983). A nation at risk: imperatives for educational reform. Retrieved July 30, 2008 from http://www. ed. gov/pubs/NatAtRisk/risk. html Rose, M. (2008). Lives on the Boundary. In Lunsford, A. and Ruszkiewicz, J. (Eds. ) The presence of others: Voices that call for response, (p. 90-103). New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s. Smith, M. L. , Fey, P. , Miller-Kahn, L. , Heinecke, W. , & P. F. Jarvis (2004). Political Spectacle and the Fate of American Schools. United States: Routledge.