Sunday, March 31, 2019

Objectives and methods of Lean Manufacturing

Objectives and methods of escape Manufacturing1. INTRODUCTIONThis report is a considerable introduction to Lean Manufacturing. Lean manufacturing is a group of methods which are populace gradu whollyy more implemented around the world and the greater fighting for manufactures. This assignment report reviews the of import marks of heel over manufacturing and the method of eliminating barbaric. The organisational, surgical operational and humankind barriers that need to solve to pass the successful slender manufacturing strategy. The ch bothenges and hassles approach shot by the comp either named Bajaj Motors in terms of caliber of its outgrowth and the brief intimacy of the main approaches of lean manufacturing manage Kaizen, adept-in- date, Total theatrical role oversight (TQM) and sixersome sigma to strain a successful organisation.1.1 LEAN MANUFACTURINGRadhakrishnan (cc8) states that Lean manufacturing is a positive phenomenon to determine and pass away the transportation dissipation, waste of snip, waste of human option and an other(prenominal) waste. In Lean manufacturing small lots are active and dispatch at the same time. It an aim at providing best and optimal quality through formation of the technique where in each subpart is examined onwards putting step further.1.2 OBJECTIVES OF LEAN MANUFACTURING as mentioned by Alavala 2008.1.2.1 prize receipts in quality means elimination of number of errors. The main objective of lean manufacturing is to attain optimum take aim in quality with emerge any or low fluctuation in operating cost.1.2.2 PRODUCTIVITY harvest-feastivity is the declaration of lean manufacturing because same amount of resources which were used earlier instantly produces better result leading to increase productivity.1.2.3 fuck up The other main objective of lean manufacturing is to reduce waste the likes of waste of time, waste of efforts, waste of resources etc which result swear out to get high er(prenominal) productivity and higher clear level.1.2.4 HELP TO KEEP IN ORDER Lean manufacturing help to keep e very(prenominal)thing in order, which will help to find right stopcock at immediate situation, clean and tidy model place, economic of p novel and leading to fast functioning of operations.1.2.5 STANDARDIZED Adopting Lean manufacturing result in standardized of resources like place for everything and everything in its right place. This retains performance of operation smooth and steady.1.2.6 OPTIMUM UTILIZATION OF RESOURCES Lean manufacturing aims at optimum or full utilization of resources (time, money, efforts, humans, machines etc.) full utilization in conformance to lop standards of governing are always beneficial to organization.1.2.7 THOROUGH CHEKING Lean manufacturing involves in depth examination of the impact as soon as the chore is over. As a result short comings are sought out at the very first step before moving to adjoining stage and efficiency is m aintained at every stage.1.3 REDUCTION OF WASTE One of the most important aspects of lean manufacturing is cut down of waste or scrap as a result unnecessary fall down of raw material, time, money and efforts are save gum olibanum manufacturing cost decreases and dough profit increases and the ultimate goal of any carry on is to achieve profit like optimising the profit and satisfying the employees working in there and hence it is very important for the organization.As lean manufacturing work on the mechanism of work for everyone and every one on the right work if organization follows this phenomenon it would result in reduction of waste and hence could be ingenuous achieved.1.4 HISTORY OF LEAN MANUFACTURING Moore (2007) demonstrate that the foundation of lean manufacturing was formed late back from 1910 when manufacturing telephone line technique of ford was formed, later on a Japanese conjunction name Toyota motors use assembly line technique of ford and many an(prenom inal) other technique which were combined in concert and formed Toyota output signal system or just in time but it was later termed as lean manufacturing which was originated in Toyota manufacturing plant.1.5 MASS occupation The manufacturing of the product in large quantity. It is done by using assembly line or another means of payoff. It is totally different from the lean manufacturing. circumstances output signal produces in large size whereas lean production produces smaller lots just that much as grocery required. Mass production is a push type production whereas lean production is pull type production.1.6 APPLICATION OF LEAN MANUFACTURING Lean manufacturing is mainly followed in manufacturing systems as the concept is do in accordance to manufacturing concerns. Though many other business are trying to apply this phenomena but the mass of result was in negative as each organization leave there own process, technique, variability, objectives etc.But opus considering th e competitive market business other than manufacturing are also going for lean manufacturing.1.7 upcoming OF LEAN MANUFACTURING The future of lean manufacturing is very titanic ( prodigious, bright). The main discernment for this is the nonstop rising of inflation rate. As we know lean aims at cutting the cost of waste so in this competitive world the organization that can cut down the waste cost will be the most feasible among all so its importance will definitely goanna rise in the future and organizations, business would be foot race after it.2. CULTURAL CHANGE Wilson (2009) states that Cultural diverseness is the process of pitch the alternate in the beliefs which are deep rooted, assumptions, perception, values and shared feelings etc which work the decision process of the organization. In short we can theorise that industry of assortments in the prevailing or existing culture leads to cultural change. Lean manufacturing bring the cultural change through the industri ousness of 5S, SIX SIGMA, KAZINE etc which change the route of the organization and lead organization to achieve optimum level goals.2.1 EXPENSIVE lean manufacturing is a expensive process as effectuation of lean strategies in the organization involve huge expenditure sample applying kazine, just in time, 5s, six sigma in organization involve lemniscus up of daily routine, new mind castigate are needed, new doctrine and so on. Moreover lean aims at diminution WASTES this process of reducing waste is also very expensive and many small industries may not opt lean.2.2 MISSING OUT SOME OF THE TOOLS Lean cannot be implemented successfully if their applications are missing because every different application have different set of goals and objectives which cannot be achieved by other applications like six sigma cannot substitute cell manufacturing and so on.Thus we can say that foundation for the successes of lean are lay down by the good implementation and understanding of all its applications.2.3 NORMAL PRODUTION Lean manufacturing do ail the normal production as applying lean involve setting up of entirely new procedures and application. As a result the normal production process is disturbed for some period. It may consider as a barrier because applying lean would require some time for effective performance. public treasury the time lean produces effective result it is considered as a barrier.2.4 contribution OF PERSONAL SKILLS Lean manufacturing aims at bringing change and this change would work efficiently provided when human resource involved in lean manufacturing are having some widely parking area personal skills. Personal skills like working in a team, working along with team, communication, problem use etc are utmost important for bulk in lean manufacturing. If people of any organization lack in such personal skills than in such a condition these skill would act as a barrier for lean manufacturing.2.5 EFFECTIVE MANGEMENT LEADERSHIP Moyles (200 6) demonstrates that Effective management leading is very crucial for the organization as in the absence of the leadership the employee will do what they wish like moreover they may refused to achieve the goals set by lean manufacturing. Lack of leadership conceal in organization would led to delay in results, Delay in projection operation, delay in achievement of goals. Thus an effective management control is necessary for organization otherwise it will act like a barrier.3. CHALLANGES FACEDE BY BAJAJ (INDIA) IN ACCORDANCE TO ITS PRODUCTBajaj one of the leading companion of two wheelers in India. Bajaj in India aims at achieving client satisfaction. The prim cause of Bajaj motors in India is guest satisfaction first and then profit. But Bajaj motors made one wrong decision that was launching Baja pulsar200 which proved as a threat to the company soon after it was launched as guest problem with Bajaj was rising day by day and was hampering the company image. The prime challe nges approach by BAJAJ MOTRS were its product named Bajaj pulsar 200. This particular product was refused by market referable to following reasons1 Poor handling poor handing of Baja pulsar 200 was a major problem as its cutting on the curve was sooner difficult and as a result it leads to many major cam stroke and thus creating a wrong or negative image in mind regarding the product and company.2 Start up problem which is faced by Bajaj pulsar 200 was the starting problem especially during winters as Baja pulsar 200 was not having a kick to start and itself starter was not that good.3 The other major drawbacks faced by Bajaj pulsar 200 was its look. It dint look pleasing at all infact it was bulky and dish aped.4 disquieting while horseback riding this problem was usually felt during the long ride as it seat are divided into two sections which make it more uncomfortable and inconvenient while riding.5 Problem with gear pattern which make inconvenient for rider in shifting the gear while riding and this again lead to large number of accident of the riders.6 The other major issue with the bike was its average its average was not that good in comparison with the other bike in the same segment. solely the above mentioned problems were in accordance to manufacturing process. The impact of failure of Bajaj 200 was so powerful that the entire image of Bajaj was getting down in customer mind as a result Bajaj pulsar 200 was totally taboo by Baja motors in India and new product named Bajaj pulsar 220 was added to the list.3.1 APPROACH FOR THE REMEDIES The best approach for the quality expediency is ISO 9000. If Bajaj would have followed this certification there would have been no reason to shutdown pulsar 200. As this certification would have sort all the manufacturing problem through quality standardization and as a result product problem would have been sort out and customer palsy-walsy product would have been made.3.2 PERMANENT STRATEGY In accordance to my companionship and views Bajaj motors should permanently adopt ISO 9000 because at present products of Bajaj motors like pulsar 220, pulsar 150, pulsar 180, pulsar dtsi faces the same common problem of handling and repair which were in pulsar 200. Application of ISO 9000 would help the Bajaj motors to surpass the quality defects at manufacturing stage and moreover the standard would be set infra which nothing would be acceptable by the organization thus problem would be sort out within the organization. In the other hand company will be beneficial in trade as being ISO certified.4. KAIZEN Alukal et al. (2006) states that Kaizen is a Japanese concept of management. The meaning of kaizen is in it word only kai (which means change) and Zen (which means good or better) i.e. bringing in the change which is good for the organization. Kaizen is a continuous process of bringing in small small change that accounts for very big and positive results. And it is establish on the phenomena th at every single phase of our feel need little but constant changes.4.1 MAJOR OBJECTIVE OF KAIZEN as mentioned by Alukal et al. (2006)1 Aims at providing world class manufacturing process is to the concern in which it is applied as change are effective only on those manufacturing concern where manufacturing process is of world class standards and in accordance to the prevailing technology.2 Aims at improving quality improvement is the outcome of kaizen. According to kaizen phenomena no matter how small or big the change is but there should be a change like keeping it simple and dynamic.3 Aims to provide job environment safe and secure. Kaizen aims at providing safe healthy and secure work climate for its employees and management. As change is effective in a place where people are adjunct and environment is healthy.4 Aims at eliminating waste, the most important objective of kaizen is to eliminate the waste(waste are the thing that things that do not add anything to the product st ill is the part of manufacturing process) this would enhance manufacturing process and would speed up the process moreover resources like men, money, time etc of the organization are saved and in the end leading to the organizational profit.4.2. JUST IN TIME Lai et al. (2009) demonstrate that Just in time technique was developed by Toyota motors and this technique was copied at almost all manufacturing plant. JIT is a technique where in superior management is needed and large work force. Just in time technique is a phenomenon of making the raw material and finished products at the time they are needed i.e. eliminating the time lag. And it generates no substantial risk to the organization.4.3. important OBJECTIVES OF JUST IN TIME1 Maintain the proper ocellus level. It means that an adequate level of stock is maintained in the warehouses so that the holding cost and other expenses related to stock are all manageable and most importantly the need of the manufacturing concern are sp iel as an when needed.2 Maintain proper or true power of inventory. It denotes that there should be no fake data recorded in the books. The data and facts recorded should denote the actual position of the stock.4.4. TOTAL QUALITY MANGEMENT Sashkin et al. (1993) states that Total quality management is a management phenomenon that seeks to full fit the need of the customer without compromising in quality like providing customer quality they want or better than what they want. It could be achieved with integration of quality related functions. This phenomenon is based on the concept that the set standards should be achieved and anything below the standards is not acceptable at all and anything above the set standards is appreciated. As a result no compromise is done with the product quality and ultimately the customer is satisfied as quality is set and based on the taste preference and requirement of the customers.4.5. SIX SIGMA Tennant (2001) demonstrates that six sigma is methodolo gical analysis developed by Motorola which emphasizes setting high objectives, collecting data and analyzing results to achieve the different way to reduce defects in products and services.It is important to find the grant method for the company to achieve the goal for quick response for the customer and increase the customer satisfaction. The requirement encouraged them to adopt either six sigma to improve process or Kaizen to reduce waste in process. merely both have some limitations as a result company need to combine their strength. Six sigma focus on the quality improvement and satisfaction of the customer whereas Kaizen focus on elimination of waste which formulate in process. However the Kaizen cannot put a process under statistical control and six sigma cannot increase process speed alone.5. CONCLUSIONBy completing this report it is clear that the lean manufacturing play a very important role in organization. It helps to reduce waste and the process which is not necessary to reduce the production cost. It explains how to increase the efficiency of the organization.

The consumer pull demand in packaged milk

The holdr evoke requisite in box take let onAs the field of vignette of the look for is The drink downr pull demand in (Packaged draw) indus try out so it involves an in depth study somewhat the nature of the consumer, taste sensation the consumer alike(p)s, preferences of the consumer, check off committal and many another(prenominal) characteristics related to the consumer and as swell as to the result. harmonise to this look for topic the intimately suitable research event mull to be subprogramd is Descriptive Research. This go away swear out to determine the buns merchandise and segmentation done in the beverages ( case take out) industry. Descriptive research is most parking bealy habituated and the basic reason for carrying out descriptive research is to identify the ca engagement of something that is happening. Descriptive research is procedured to obtain instruction concerning the current stipulation of the phenomena to describe what exist w ith respect to variable or condition in a office The descriptive research go out further help to conduct descriptive keep an eye ons to identify the characteristics of consumers who leverage compressible drinks, for example mostly consumers tend to live in larger cities geters argon mostly youthsters, housewives, working people and so on it allow for help to determine the marketplace potential it leave help to identify the consummation of differences in the needs, perceptions and attitudes of the sub conventions.3.2 Research possible actionThe following hypothesis will be formulated and tested by the researcher.Ho The impact of advertising will not meat on consumer demand.H1 The impact of advertising will effect on consumer demand.Ho Consumer preferences will not be checked intimately the type of draw they deal.H1 Consumer preferences will be checked approximately the type of take out they buy.Ho The reason why customers will not severalize among antithetical scor esH1 The reason why customers will discriminate among different taints.Ho Extent of competitive forces in the market will not be checked.H1 Extent of competitive forces in the market will be checked.Ho To analyze the consumer trends not in the market.H1 To analyze the consumer trends in the market.Ho To manage the extent to which consumer demand will not be abnormal by core features of harvest-tide.H1 To monitor the extent to which consumer demand will be alter by core features of product.3.4 Theoretical Framework DiagramThe theoretical mannikin has been made with the help of the variables which are related to the consumer pull demand in beverages (soft drinks) industry. With the help of the variables it becomes easy to the study about the relationship between different factors affecting the consumer pull demand.PRICINGMarket skimmingMarket sagacityTarget market smear reckonProduct Diversity shop Consumer ChoiceConvenienceAttractionBrand figureSales foreign FactorsSocialCu lturalEconomicLegalReligious governance forwardingBrand imageEye catching promotionUsage status advertizementConsumer perceptionConsumer preferencesBrand imageCONSUMER PULLCONSUMER PULL distri yetionAvailabilityNeed satisfyingBrand imageConsumer get authorHigh family income.More than one earning member.Brand image.3.4.1 variable quantity consultation ListDependent VariableConsumer pull demandIndependent VariableMarket stage distri neverthelessionAdvertisingPricing.Product diversity. advancementConsumer Buying PowerSelective Distri exclusivelyionCore ProductNeed unanimousAvailabilityConsumer PerceptionConsumer PreferenceMarket PenetrationMarketing grazingTarget MarketDemandUsage StatusBrand ImageEye-catching Packaging. impertinent Factors.Product diversity.3.4.2 Theoretical Justifications of VariablesIn the framework separately variable is related to the consumer pull demand and they show that how each of them affects consumer pull demand in the beverages ( draw industry) in dustry.The variable used market stage discover the gross revenue of take out ( case milk) industry. Market stage helps to determine the market situation and consumer behaviors according to the changes in the market situations. Market stage overwhelms to determine market life cycle, consumer behavior, product demand which includes that whether the demand is in moldable or elastic and these every last(predicate) end up to see the sales of the soft drinks industry. aft(prenominal) doing survey on these all components of the market stage the sales washbowl be maximized.The second variable used in the theoretical framework is distribution this likewise helps in maximizing the sales in the packaged milk industry. Its very authorised to make the product available to all the locations so that consumers whitethorn feel ease in get the product. Distribution helps to make the product available and convenient. Distribution also includes giving the succession and place advantages to t he consumers so that they are able to purchase the product because with all these ways product will be placed at every shop and consumers will have a favourable image about the product. This will help to increase the sales of the packaged milk. Packaging is a very substantial aspect in increasing the sales of a product. The package of the packaged milk will help the company to gain blot visual and brand identity. For positioning a product good forwarding is very essential. Packaging helps to attract the consumers towards the product and from packaging.The product is differentiated from other products. So packaging is considered to be an important subdivision for increasing the sales in soft drinks industry.Advertising is also an important element for increasing the sales of a product. Advertising underside be done above the line (ATL) and below the line (BTL). Advertising merchantman also be done by dint of mediums such as television, radio, banners, billboards and discu ssionpapers. Advertising helps the product in gaining popularity. This will help to increase the sales.Pricing also helps for the success of the product. Pricing includes the strategies such as market skimming and market penetration. With the help of pricing it becomes easy to identify the stain market and by this company can offer the damages which consumers are ready to pay. If the consumer stimulates the product credible so this is positive for the sales of the product.Product diversity plays an important office staff for gaining the increasing trend in the sales. Product diversity creates brand consumer weft and brand image, it also makes the consumers to get attracted towards the product. Consumers get variety in products so they dont get bore and they keep of buying new variety of products.External factors also increase the sales of the product. External factors include study on demographics, economic conditions, competition, social and cultural forces, technology and la stly the political and well-grounded forces. In marketing external factors have a major persuade on products marketing opportunities and activities. So the study of all related factors helps in increasing the sales in the soft drinks industry.3.5.1 ExamplesThe questions to be asked from the respondents would be ground on their liking and what factors make them to buy their referred milk brand.Q1. Do you use packaged milk or informal milk? If yes then why If no then why -Q2. Which milk brand do you use?Olpers Good milk near draw Pak Haleeb other recreate predicate -Q.3. which packaged milk do you prefer but unable to purchase due to other factors like expensive, health cut downs etc?Olpers Good milk Nestle draw Pak Haleeb other please specify -Q.4. you use packaged milk for which social occasion? Strong bones Calcium Diet conscious otherwise Q.5. you prefer to buy your extra proposition milk brand for. Disposal packaging Expensive packaging Attractive packaging Health h azards issues other please specify -Q.6. How often do you buy milk? Daily pop buying Weekly Monthly3.5.2 Population, Working population and Planned renderThe population of whole Pakistan is keistered for this survey. Working population is Punjab and planned sample is Lahore. The survey is limited to Punjab and further its restricted to the city Lahore due to the time constraints. As study is confined to Lahore only, therefore, the results may not be generalized well in other cities.3.5.3 Sample Size ConsiderationFor this study questionnaire will be made to be filled by a do of 100 consumers, living in different locations in Lahore.3.5.4 Choice of sample distribution TechniqueThis is cross sectional study, which will be conducted in a intrinsic setting and it will be covering both descriptive research and as well as causal. It will be found on primary and secondary research. The level of investigation in this study will be focused on the collection of data about consumer prefer ences in packaged milk industry.In this research the sample distribution proficiency used will be probability. And further under probability the technique used will be convenience sampling technique. Convenience sampling is useful in obtaining large number of completed questionnaire quickly and economically and large number of respondents can be obtained quickly.3.5.5 Field work and Respondents penThis is cross sectional study, which will be conducted in a natural setting and it will be covering both descriptive research and as well as causal. It will be based on primary and secondary research. The level of investigation in this study will be focused on the collection of data about consumer preferences in beverages (soft drinks) industry.The relevant data will be collected through a survey. For this purpose a questionnaire will be designed and distributed among consumers. The questionnaire will include information regarding consumers personal preference, brand loyalty, taste prefe rences and other factors that attract the consumer.The target population will equal of both male and female customers but mainly targeted to household wives because they better understand the values and needs of their household members, specially children and youngsters and by making their choice a preference they can judge much easily what they actually want. Consumption of milk is common in every age. For this study the target population will comprise consumers living in different areas of LahoreChapter 4 Estimates, Analysis and coating4.1 Estimated ResultsHypothesisHo The impact of advertising will not effect on consumer demand.H1 The impact of advertising will effect on consumer demand.AnalysisFrom my findings and digest from questionnaire and pilot study it is estimated that advertising will not affect the consumer demand so, Ho is accepted.4.2 Analysis of FindingsThe ratio I found from my analysis is that the maximal age group ranges from 18-25 and 25-35, nub that mostl y the age group is young and can analyze the factors which can affect the consumer demands. role of age group (35-45) is 22.3%, which is somewhat inflict than the age group ranges from 18-35. Age group of 45-55 has a division of 8.0%. For above 55 luck was 5.45 which was relatively disgrace than the preceding ones. Monthly income of household ranges till 30%, Mostly consumers has a monthly income above 50,000. And then ploughshare for income 25000-50,000 is 23.3%, for 10,000-25000 consumers plowshare was 16.1% which was relatively lower than the30%. reasonable percentage I found is 30.4% which for the income group of above 50,000.When I canvas the occupation for consumers the result collected are that students has a frequency of 15 and their percentage is 15.0% of 100. House wives was the major target market for me so it has a frequency of 60 and percentage I found out is 53.6%, and legitimate percentage for house wives is 60.0, and most of the consumers were ego employ ed the percentage for self employed consumers is 18.8% and their frequency is 21. Another ratio is 3.6% which is for businessman out of 100.and the reasonable percentage is for housewives which is 60.Percentage for male is 26.8% and frequency is 31. As questionnaire was designed mainly to target the housewives because preference for packaged milk was ask, so they have a percentage of 61.6% ad frequency for female is 69.Marital status for married men and women is 59.8% with a frequency of 67, whereas for unmarried it was 29.5% with a frequency of 33.When consumers were asked that either they used packaged milk or loose milk or both the great percentage is for both, packaged milk and loose milk as well, packaged milk has a percentage of 42.9% and that for both the percentage it is 46.4%.and there is a very small percentage for only loose milk. Consumers prefer to use both packaged milk and loose milk for different purpose and in different ways.For a milk brand consumers has a highe r(prenominal) percentage of 33.9 for Nestle milk pack with a frequency of 38 which is higher than olpers which has a frequency of 28 with a percentage of 25.0% which means that consumers are still loyal to their ill-tempered milk brand they try a new product for once but as their taste is developed through out so they are satisfied with their extra milk brand, whereas Haleeb has a percentage of 16.1, Good milk has comparatively lower percentage of 2.7 and consumers has other preferences as well such as flavored milk other than plain milk , they have different choices for milk . Percentage for other milk is 10.7% which includes Nurpur, Nesvita , Nirala and dairy Queen and flavored milk as well. higher(prenominal) percentage for Nestle Milk pack shows that still after confront a very tough competition in market with Oplers Haleeb and other competitors Nestle Milk Pack still has its own stand in the market and consumers still prefer Nestle Milk Pack. later on analyzing close to 37 .5% of the consumers prefer to buy Nesvita, Dairy Queen, Nurpur and Nirala if they are unable to purchase their particular milk brand due to health hazards issues and expensiveness. Although 25 consumers prefer to buy Olpers, and 11.6 % from them has a preference of Good milk whereas Haleeb has a percentage of 10.7 as comparability to other brands. Almost 28.6% of the consumers buy their particular Milk Brand for Stronger bones and 33 of them buy for the purpose of calcium which can make your bones and body smashed and fit, 17 of them were diet conscious. Consumer prefer their particular milk brand for health hazards issues with a frequency of 48, to avoid bacterial effects which are included in loose milk, 8.9% of consumers prefer their milk brand for attractive packaging which attract them through TVC, Billboards, adds in news paper etc. although 4.5% of them are status conscious and they buy their particular milk brand for Expensive packaging. Almost 69.6% of the consumers woul d buy their particular brand if their brand is changed into uncommon shape and with new features etc, and 18 of them with a percentage of 16.1 would not like to buy it. thither are consumers who strongly have that demand of their particular milk brand is unnatural by the price cut and their percentage is 14.3 with a frequency of 16.and 47 of them touch with this statement, whereas 34 of them are neutral about their decision whether the demand of milk brand is affected by the price cut or not, 34 consumers agree that their demand of buying a particular milk brand is affected by advertisement, and 64 of them does not agree. Although advertisement of a milk brand is very important for promotion and convincing consumers and giving awareness about their brand, through advertisement consumers can make the mind of consumers to buy their brand, 41 consumers are brand loyal thats why they buy their particular milk brand with a percentage of 36.6, and 23.2% are attracted towards advertisem ent for the brand and they buy their particular milk brand by watching TV commercials and through different mediums. Consumers are also attracted towards a milk brand for their packaging and their percentage is 24.1. Consumers ranked their quality of milk brand with a percentage of 61.6 and frequency for average is 7.this means that they are satisfied with their milk brand. And for packaging consumers also have a high percentage of 36.6. For pricing consumer has a preference 34.8 being the highest and 7.1 as satisfactory. Availability of their particular milk brand is good as highest percentage is 42.0. While buying milk 52.7 yield preference to whiteness of milk, 38.4% gives preference to thickness, where as 50.0% prefer taste of their milk brand before buying and 46.6% of consumers prefer to buy a milk brand which is easy to use. Most of the consumers buy milk daily as their percentage is 51.8 with a frequency of 58. Whereas 24.1% of them do bulk buying, and 15 consumers consume milk weekly .Preference of household member is calculated which is 48 those who ofttimes ask and 25.9% ask their household member rarely before buying a particular milk and 17.9% of them never asked before buying a milk brand, reason being that mostly questioners were filled by the housewives and they are aware of choice and preference of their household members. Highest percentage of consuming milk is 1 liter and breathing in for more than and 1 liter is 50.9%.and consumers like to buy a milk brand from any well reputed departmental store and 36.6% of them buy their milk brand from near by shop. After analyzing packaged milk there are consumers those who use loose milk and they use loose milk for various purposes like tea, desert, inebriety etc with a percentage of 25.9. Consumers those who loose milk over packaged milk has an issue of price as their percentage is 28.6, because price of loose milk is comparatively lower than the packaged milk. And most of them use loose milk for accessibility purpose as well with a frequency of 14.4.4 Limitation of the bringThe study is limited by the following factorsThe study is confined to Lahore only. Therefore, the results may not be generalized well in other cities.There are many other variables which affect consumer pull demand but will not be considered in this study.It is difficult to determine the detailed sample size.The consumers may vary in their interpretation of question4.5 Conclusion spate consume milk in fresh dried and saturated forms in grocery stores most commonly sold product to consumers is semiliquid milk. All types of milk (pasteurized, sterilized, UHT, Packaged) or in bulk are required in a country or locality. New packaging carcass of milk is a popular and for practical purposes packaged milk powders. From my analysis and finings of questionnaire, pilot study and regression analysis I found out that 58.0% consumer consume milk, and widely used packaged milk is Nestle Milk Pack with a percenta ge of 33.9. People have different preferences and tastes and they consume milk according to them, consumers also use flavored milk for e.g. chocolate milk, Pakola etc but their percentage is low as compare to plain liquid milk. People living in well developed and posh areas of Lahore like falsifying and Gulberg have more preferences of taking packaged milk, while people with lower income bracket prefer to take milk from milk-man. Biggest reason what I find is the extent and the level of frequent competitiveness in the milk industry. The marketing plans are of key importance in this regard. Consumers are attracted more to the good that is marketed well. There are many advantages of packaged milk, delicious, hygienic, Status symbol and prevailing prices are justified. Milk is one of the essential diets for every age, it helps building strong bones, and milk is loaded with eight essential vitamins and minerals which are very important and plays a vital role in a human body, and perce ntage of consumers those who buy milk for health hazards issues are 42.9, and 29.5% of consumers buy milk for temperament packaging, this shows that consumers are quite conscious about their health issues and at the uniform time they prefer to buy milk which can help them preventing from bacterial affects like cholera, malaria and Diarrhea etc. price but is not affected for consumers because they have to drink milk, and if prices are increased people cannot stop drinking milk but they adjust accordingly. Although advertising do matters for consumers to know more about their product, and children are attracted towards the jingle that now-a days milk brands are exploitation in their advertisements, because children are more attracted towards packaged milk than loose milk reason being the taste of the packaged milk is more tastier than loose milk packaged milk is healthy, and has no bacterial affects as compare to loose milk.ReferencesAttitude and Usage Trend Study (AUTS). Chocolate Milk. crapulence Usage Attitudes among Consumers. May 2001.International Dairy Foods Association. Milk Facts. 2000 Edition. majuscule, D.C. International Dairy Foods Association. November 2000, p. 34.U.S. Department of Health and humanity Services, Food and Drug Administration. Code of national Regulations. Title 21, Chapter 1, Part 131 (Milk and cream), Subpart B (Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream). Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office. Revised as of April 1, 2000.Childrens Chocolate Milk Survey. Prepared for case Dairy Council by McDonald Research, Inc. May 1998.Tomashek, K.M., S. Nesby, K.S. Scanlon, et. al. Commentary nutritional rickets in Georgia. Pediatrics 107(4), April 2001. e45. http// content/full/107/4Kreiter, S.R., R.P. Schwartz, H.N. Kirkman, Jr., P.A. Charlton, A.S. Calikoglu, and M.L. Davenport. Nutritional rickets in African American breast-fed infants. J. Pediatr. 137 153-157, 2000.Guthrie, H.A. Effect o f a flavored milk weft on a school lunch program. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 71 35-40, 1997.Anderson, G.H. Sugars and health a review. Nutr. Res. 17(9) 1485-1498, 1997.The American Dietetic Association. Position of The American Dietetic Association use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 98 580-587, 1998.U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Nutrition and Your Health Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 5th edition. Home and Garden publicize No. 232. Washington, D.C. U. S. Government Printing Office, 2000.Guthrie, J.F., and J. F. Morton. Food sources of added sweeteners in the diets of Americans. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 100 43-51, 2000.Washington State Dairy Council 1998, Revised internal Dairy Council 2001. Think Your Drink. 2001.National Dairy Council. A protective effect of dairy foods in vocal health. Dairy Council Digest 71(1) 1-6, 2000. http// NationalDairyCouncil/Gibson, S., and S. William s. Dental caries in pre-school children associations with social class, toothbrushing habit, and consumption of sugars and sugar-containing foods. Caries Res. 33 101-113, 1999.Bowen, W.H., and S.K. Pearson. Effect of milk on carcinogenesis. Caries Res. 27 461-466, 1993.Dehkordi, N., D.R. Rao, A.P. Warren, and C.B. Chawan. Lactose malabsorption as influenced by chocolate milk, skim milk, sucrose, whole milk, and lactic cultures. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 95 484-486, 1995Andrew. M. Novakovic.(1995) Testimony of Fedral Dairy Policy, Cornell University Syracuse New York.Anthony Bennett, Frederic Lhoste, Jay crook and Joe Phetan.(2005) The upcoming of Small scale Dairying.David Zahn, LLC Windsor Road. E, North Heaven CT.Diana Beccue Brown, (1987) Consumer in Search of Value.FAO (1996) Milk and Milk products Marketing Milk Processing. Narvasana.Lewis. H. Haney, (1920). Integration in Marketing. Vol 10.No 3. (sep,1920),pp.528-545

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Research on the Defence of Diminished Responsibility

enquiry on the Defence of Diminished ResponsibilityResearch ProposalProvocation, diminished certificate of indebtedness and the reason adapted (wo)man the implications of the Law Reform military missions recommendations.IntroductionThe crime of murder is one defined by the common fairness as the intention to un faithfulnessfully kill virtually other human existence with malice afore thought. Currently, in England and Wales the legal system does not differentiate between different types of murder, such as first and morsel degree.1 There are however, disproofs available to defendants, which could enable either an acquittal ( near(prenominal) full general defensive measures), or a conviction of some lesser offence (specific defences). to a lower place the Homicide behave 1957 an someone can plead the defences of discomfort, diminished responsibility or claim that he or she was involved in a egotism-annihilation pact. If such defences are successful, this will project the result of bringing a charge of murder down to one of manslaughter and thus, termed voluntary manslaughter. The first of the dickens defences have developed a considerable amount of case fairness and m both of these decisions have related to abusive relationships where the cursed has killed the alleged abuser.The equity relating to the defence of exhortation has held that an person must have been provoked (by either words or actions), resulting in a total loss of self control,2 and that a reasonable person in the same situation would have acted in the same manner. The first two aspects of the defence have been referred to as the adequate to(p)ive elements and the third part as butt. The so-called objective element has become more and more subjective in genius. In R v Camplin, Lord Diplock acknowledged that the test was not all in all objective3 and in the case of R v Smith (Morgan James)4 it was asseverate that the characteristics of the defendant should be attributed to the reasonable person and this includes not only characteristics that had bang on the actual provocation, but also on the ability of an item-by-item to maintain his or her self control. In context of the so-called batter wife cases, the judiciary have also applied this principle.5The specific defences depict above are justified on the basis that in some circumstances, the jurisprudence should recognise that there are reasons as to why an individual should not be convicted of the more serious offence of murder and thus, subject to a mandatory life sentence. The issue with the provocation defence relating to an individual who has suffered long-term abuse, is that such individuals will not always be able to rely on it as there may be some aspect of pre-meditation. The integrity has also recognised that such individuals suffering from some abnormality of caput may not be fully amenable for his or her postulate and therefore should be convicted of manslaughter instead of murd er. The effect of abuse on an individuals mental state can in certain circumstances, amount to an abnormality of mind and thus satisfy the defence of diminished responsibility.6The purpose of the proposed research is to examine the circulating(prenominal) state of the fair play and look at the way in which abused women are dealt with when supercharged with murder. In line with the Law armorial bearings proposals to reform the law of homicide, the research will also examine the extent to which the proposed change in the law will impact on this area. It is submitted that the current state of the law is not adequate in dealing with such individuals and it remains to be answered as to whether the proposals will make any real difference.The Law outfits Consultation Paper proposes to maintain the defence of diminished responsibility and comments that there are no grounds for abolishing the defence based upon arguments that it sexual activity discriminatory. The paper comments at one pointWas the abnormality of mental cognitive operation really a substantial cause of the defendants conduct if other factors were at work? Or, were the other factors, jealousy, anger, a desire to loom or punish, the real or predominant explanation, with the abnormality of mind being a minor background factor of inadequate moral consequence to affect the verdict?7The research will examine the defence of provocation and the so-called objective element in order to determine how this fits with the nature of a long term build up of abuse suffered by some women. Is there a true loss of control in such circumstances and is it appropriate to attribute the full characteristics of such state to the reasonable (wo)man? progressmore, by also enabling such individuals to plead the defence of diminished responsibility, as the above quote would look atm to suggest, is the law precisely categorising these people to as their conduct is not viewed quite as poorly as a person who commits murd er? Thus, the term abnormality of mind is not one used in psychiatric terminology and the courts have been left to make exactly what the phrase means on a case-by-case basis. It seems doubtful as to whether this is a sufficient approach for the law to take.ObjectivesAnalyse the current law relating to the defences of provocation and diminished responsibility and establish how these apply to women in long-term abusive relationships.Present the justifications for the defences and apply them in context of the proposed research theme.Establish the proposed reforms in the area.Critically analyse the proposed reforms in line with the research topic in order to determine whether they are sufficient.Value of the ResearchAdd to the current academic debate in this field.Establish the appropriateness of the Law outfits reforms.Personal busy to the researcher.Theoretical research based on literature search and particular analysis.SourcesDomestic legislation, cases in domestic and internatio nal jurisdictionsBooks and periodical articles.Law Commission Reports.Statistics from the Home Office (relating to domestic violence/fatal offences from domestic relationships). antecedent Plan (Chapters)AbstractIntroduction and overview of the topicAnalysis of the existing law on provocation/diminished responsibilityAnalysis of the Law Commissions proposals for reformConclusion (including any nevertheless suggestions for the direction the law should take for the future).Essential Reading(As well as the most current academic text books on the subject)LegislationHomicide Act 1957Family Law Act 1996 see Part IV relating to domestic violence provisions security measure From Harassment Act 1997See also the Law Reforms paper The Law Commission Consultation Paper No 177, A New Homicide Act For England And Wales?At http// v Holley 2005 UKPC 23 R v Mohammed 2005 EWCA Crim 180 R v Ahluwalia (1992) 4 entirely.E.R 889 R v Bedder (1954) 2All.E.R . 801 DPP v Camplin (1978) A.C. 705 R v Duffy 1949 1 All.E.R 932 R v Newell (1980) 71 Cr.App.R. 331 R v Roberts 1990 Crim.L.R 122 R v Thornton (No.2) (1996) 2 All.E.R 1023 R v Richens (1993) 4 All.E.R 877 R v Humphreys (1995) 4 All E.R 1008 R v Morhall (1995) 3 All E.R 659 R v Luc Thiet Thuan (1996) 2 All E.R 1033 R v Smith (Morgan James) (2000) 4 All. E.R. 289 R v Keaveney (2004) LTL 22.04.04 extempore unreported find it on LawtelJournalsToczek, The action of the reasonable man, (1996) N.L.J. 146, 835 Toczek, self-command and the Reasonable Man (2000) NLJ 150, 1222 Oliver, Provocation and non-violent homosexual advances (1999) J.Crim.L. 63(6) 586-592 Thomas, Sentencing manslaughter manslaughter by reason of provocation manslaughter of spouse of partner (2003) Crim.L.R. June 414-417 Neal Bagaric, Provocation the ongoing subservience of principle to customs duty, (2003) J.Crim.L 67(3) 237-256 Gardner, The mark of responsibility (2003) O.J.L.S 23(2) 157-171N.B Some psychology literature may be relevant on this topic search the online journals for killing stemming from domestic violence.Further research will also be needed to obtain further literature search and your university library should be able to order any articles of relevance that they do not have on site/ nark to online journal. Also search for any recent reviews of the Law Commissions proposalsYou may also need to add to this proposal and include a timescale and any further information you wish to add such as the length of the research (this is obviously information not available)1Footnotes1 However, see the proposals of the Law Reform Commission2 See R v Duffy (1949) 1 All.E.R 9323 (1978) AC 7054 2000 4 All. E.R. 2895 See R v Keaveney 2004 EWCA Crim 10916 R v Thornton (No.2) 1996 2 All.E.R 10237 The Law Commission Consultation Paper No 177, A New Homicide Act For England And Wales? At http//

Friday, March 29, 2019

Argon Cluster and Graphene Collision Simulation Experiment

Argon thump and Graphene Collision Simulation look intoFormation of Nanopore in a Suspended Graphene Sheet with Argon Cluster Bombardment A Molecular Dynamics Simulation study rescind Formation of a nanopore in a suspended graphene ragtime use an nuclear number 18 gas beam was adoptd using molecular(a) energisings (MD) mode. The Lennard-Jones (LJ) two-body potential and TersoffBrenner empirical potential brawniness function are employ in the MD simulations for several(predicate) interactions between particles. The simulation results demonstrated that the misfortuneal life force and lump sizing played a crucial situation in the strikes. Simulation results for the Ar55 graphene strikes show that the Ar55 clomp bounces back when the accompanying elan vital is little than 11ev/ instalment, the argon stud penetrates when the incident heartiness is greater than 14 ev/atom. The two threshold incident energies, i.e. threshold incident nil of dishonor formation in g raphene and threshold zippo of penetration argon practice bundling were observed in the simulation. The threshold energies were found to have relatively weak negative fountain law dependence on the plunk sizing. The number of sputtered degree Celsius atoms is obtained as a function of the kinetic zippo of the clump.Keywords Nanopore, Suspended graphene tacking, Argon cluster, Molecular kinetics simulationIntroductionThe degree Celsius paper atoms in graphene condense in a honeycomb lattice cod to sp2-hybridized carbon bond in two dimensions 1. It has unique mechanical 2, caloric 3-4, electronic 5, optical 6, and transport properties 7, which leads to its huge potential applications in nanoelectronic and nothing science 8. One of the key obstacles of pristine graphene in nanoelectronics is the absence of striation gap 9-10. Theoretical studies have shown that chemical doping of graphene with foreign atoms can baffle the electronic band structure of graphene and lead to the metal to semiconductor transition and break the polarized transport degeneracy 11-12. Also, computational studies have demonstrated that some(a) vacancies of carbon atoms within the graphene plane could induce a band-gap opening and fermi level shifting 13-14. Graphene nanopores can have potential applications in various(a) technologies, such as DNA sequencing, gas separation, and single-molecule analysis 15-16. Generating sub-nanometer pores with precisely-controlled sizes is the key hindrance in the design of a graphene nanopore device. Several method have been apply to punch nanopores in graphene rag weeks, including electron beam from a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and heavy ion tool.Using electron beam technique, Fischbein et al.17 drilled nanopores with the width of several(prenominal) nanometers and demonstrated that porous graphene is very stable but, this method cannot be wide used because of its low efficiency and high cost. Russo et al. 18 used ene rgetic ion film technique to create nanopores with radius as small as 3. S. Zhao et al. 19 prefigured that energetic cluster irradiation was more effective in generating nanopores in graphene, because their much larger kinetic heartiness could be transferred to the target atoms. modern experimental works have further confirmed that cluster irradiation is a feasible and promising way in the generation of nanopores 20. numeric simulations have demonstrated that, by choosing a suitable cluster species and controlling its cogency, a nanopores of desired sizes and qualities can be fabricated in a graphene sheet 19.A useful tool for studying the influence of different conditions of interactions between cluster and graphene on the formation of nanopore is numerical simulations utilizing molecular dynamics (MD) 21. The results may be useful in explaining experimental results and predicting optimal conditions for preferred graphene nanopores.In this paper, MD simulations were per crea te for the collisions between an argon cluster and graphene. The phenomena of argon clustergraphene collisions and machine of the atomic nanopore formation in graphene were investigated. Effects of cluster size on the threshold incident energy of defect formation in graphene were also discussed.Molecular Dynamics MethodMD simulations were performed for the collisions between an argon cluster and graphene. For present simulations we used an effective code LAMMPS stands for Large-scale nuclear/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator, written by Sandia National Laboratories 22. duration (along the X axis) of the graphene socio-economic class was 11 nm, its width (along the Y axis) was 10 nm, and distributively layer contained 3936 atoms. Periodic boundary conditions were applied to both lateral directions. In the simulation, the TersoffBrenner empirical potential energy function (PEF) was utilized to simulate the energy of covalent bonding between carbon atoms in the structure of gra phene layer 23-24. The initial configuration was fully relaxed before the collision simulations and the target temperature was kept up(p) at 300 K. During the collision phase, a thermostat was applied to the borders of graphene. The Ar nanocluster was arranged by cutting a sphere from FCC bulk crystals, which had no initial thermal motion. The Ar cluster was initially located higher up the center of graphene at a sufficiently large hold so that there would be no interaction between the Ar and graphene atoms. Then, a negative translational velocity component, Vz, was assumed for each atom of the clusters. hazard angle of the argon cluster to the graphene normal was zero. Lennard-Jones (LJ) two-body potential was employed to simulate the interactions of ArAr and ArC atoms. The form of LJ potentials was(1)In the LJ potential, is the distance at which the potential is zero and is the depth of the potential well. Note that the constants were obtained from the assortment rules give n by ij = (i+j)/2 and ij = (ij)1/2. The parameters for and used in the present simulation are shown in Table 125. Position of the atom was updated by the velocity Verlet algorithm with a time step of slight than t = 0.5 fs. To reduce the calculation time, a cut-off length was foregod. The Van der Waals interaction of Ar-Ar and Ar-C atoms with the distance of 11A or above was neglected.ResultStudying the effect of incident energy in ranging 1120 ev/atom was elect to demonstrate two distinctive phenomena (i) Argon atoms were just reflected, and (ii) some argon atoms penetrated through graphene. Fig. 1 demonstrates the probabilities of coefficient of reflection and penetration of the Ar55 cluster.Fig. 2 shows the snapshots of the deformation of the graphene sheet due to the collision with an Ar55 cluster in the case of the incident energy of less than 11ev. During the collision, graphene was bended in the circular land around the collision point and the transverse deflection wave was observed. After the collision, argon cluster was bursted into fragments.Fig. 3 shows the final atomic configurations resulted from the incidence of Ar55 cluster with the energy of 10 and 11 ev/atom. There were two possibilities for the structure of the graphene sheet after the collision (i) the graphene was rippled after the collision and no damaged region was formed, this was observed in case of the incident energy of less than 11ev (Fig. 3(a)), and (ii) the collision caused defect in graphene (Fig. 3(b)).Fig. 4 shows that there were two possibilities for the structure of the graphene sheet after collision with an Ar55 cluster in the case of the incident energy of greater than 11 ev/atom (i) the argon cluster penetrated into the graphene sheet without the sputtered carbon atoms (Fig. 4(a)), and (ii) the argon cluster penetrated into the graphene sheet with the sputtered carbon atoms (Fig. 4(b)). When the incident energy of argon cluster was 11ev/atom, atomic-scale defects such as StoneWales defect were formed in the graphene sheet (Fig. 3(b)). With the increase of the incident energy, these atomic defects began to get affiliated and finally a nanopore with carbon chains on the pore distinctness was created in graphene. The atomic carbon chains with unsaturated bonds thus provided the method for chemical functionalization of graphene nanopores in order to improve their separation ability and detection. For example, oxidization of packed multilayered graphene sheets was significantly permeable to water and impermeable to He, N2, Ar, and H2 26.Accordingly, it was necessary to introduce the concept of threshold incident energy of defect formation (Ed) in graphene and threshold energy (Ep) of penetration argon cluster in graphene. Fig. 5 shows the size dependence of each threshold incident energy. Thus, both Ed and Ep were supposed to be written in simple power-law equationsIn Eq. (2), Ed(1) and Ep(1) indicate the threshold energy for argon atom, and N is cluster size. Power indices on N, , and , mean the degree of non-linear effect.(2)Fig. 6 shows the final atomic configurations resulted from the incidence of Ar55 cluster with the energy of 14 , 15 ev/atom. By further change magnitude energy, the carbon chains became short and the pore pungency became smoothwe metric the number of sputtered carbon atoms as a function of entireness incident energy, because the number of the sputtered carbon atoms was in correspondence to the area of nanopore in graphene. Fig. 7 shows the number of sputtered carbon atoms as a function of positive cluster energy in the case of Ar19 and Ar55 cluster collision. For both cases, as the total energy increased, the number of sputtered carbon atoms increased. This result was in agreement with the anterior study 27 .The number of sputtered carbon atoms can be approximated by a constant value for incident energy larger than 10 Kev. The cluster collision with large size led to higher the number of sputtere d carbon atoms when all clusters had the same total cluster energy.ConclusionsThe phenomena of argon clustergraphene collisions and mechanism of the atomic nanopore formation in suspended graphene sheet were investigated using molecular dynamics method. Summary of the obtained results is as followsThreshold incident energy which caused defect formation (Ed) in graphene and penetration (Ep) into argon cluster were introduced.Simulation results for the argon clustergraphene collisions showed that the argon cluster bounced back when the incident energy was less than Ed and broke when the incident energy was greater than Ep.Suspended carbon chains could be formed at the edge of the nanopore via adjusting the incident energy and, by increasing energy, the carbon chains became short and the pore edge became smooth.Ed and Ep were found to have relatively weak negative power law dependence on cluster size.The cluster collisions with large size led to higher the number of sputtered carbon at oms when all clusters had the same total cluster energy.References1 K. S. Novoselov,A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov,D. Jiang,Y. Zhang,S. V. Dubonos,I. V. Grigorieva,A. A. Firsov , Science. 306 ( 2004) 666.2 T. Lenosky, X. Gonze, M. Teter, V. Elser, Nature.355 (1992) 333.3 J.N. Hu, X.L. Ruan, Y.P. Chen, Nano Lett. 9 (7) (2009) 2730.4 S. Ghosh, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, E.P. Pokatilov, D.L. Nika, A.A. Balandin, W. Bao, F. Miao, C.N. Lau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92 (15) (2008) 151911-1.5 A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, Rev. Mod. Phys.81 ( 2009) 109.6 D. S. L. Abergel,A. Russell,V. I. Falko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 (2007) 063125.7 A. Cresti, N. Nemec, B. Biel, G. Niebler, F. Triozon, G. Cuniberti, S. Roche, Nano Research. 1 (2008) 361.8 A. K. Geim, Science. 324 (2009) 15309 A. Du, Z. Zhu, S. C. Smith, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(9) (2010) 2876.10 R. Balog, B. Jrgensen, L. Nilsson, M. Andersen, E. Rienks, M. Bianchi, M. Fanetti, E. Lgsgaard, A. Baraldi, S. Liz zit, Z. Sljivancanin, F. Besenbacher, B. Hammer, T. G. Pedersen, P. Hofmann, L. Hornekr, Nat. Mater. 9 (2010) 315.11 T. B. Martins, R. H. Miwa, A. J. R. da Silva, A. Fazzio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 (2007) 19680.12 Y. M. Lin, C. Dimitrakopoulos, K. A. Jenkins, D. B. Farmer, H. Y. Chiu, A. Grill and P. Avouris, Science. 327 ( 2010) 662.13 A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81 (2009) 109.14 D. J. Appelhans, Z. Lin, M. T. Lusk, Phys. Rev. B. 82 (2010) 073410.15 G. F. Schneider, Nano Lett. 10(8) (2010) 3163.16 P. Russo, A. Hu, G. Compagnini, Nano-Micro Lett. 5(4) (2013) 260.17 M. D. Fischbein, M. Drndic, Appl. Phys. Lett.93 ( 2008) 113107.18 C. J. Russo, J. A. Golovchenko, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 109(16) (2012) 5953.19 S. J. Zhao, J. M. Xue, L. Liang, Y. G. Wang, S. Yan, J. Phys. Chem. C 116(21) (2012) 11776.20 Y. C. Cheng, H. T. Wang, Z. Y. Zhu, Y. H. Zhu, Y. Han, X. X. Zhang, U. Schwingenschlogl, Phys. Rev. B. 85 ( 2012) 073406.2 1H. Araghi, Z. Zabihi, Nucl. Inst. Methods B 298 (2013) 12.22 S.J. Plimpton, Journal of Computational Physics 117 (1995) 1.23 D.W. Brenner, Phys. Rev. B .42 (1990) 9458.24 D. W. Brenner, O. A. Shenderova, J. A. Harrison, S. J. Stuart, B. Ni, S. B. Sinnott, J. Phys. Condens. Mater. 14 (2002) 78325 Y. Yamaguchi, J. Gspann, Eur. Phys. J. D. 16 (2001) 10326 R. R. Nair, H. A. Wu, P. N. Jayaram, I. V. Grigorieva, A. K. Geim , Science. 335 ( 2012) 442.27 N. Inui, K. Mochiji, K. Moritani, N. Nakashima, Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 98 (2010) 787.Fig. 1. Incident energy dependence of the reflection and penetration probabilitiesFig. 2. Snapshots of Ar55 clusters collision on graphene sheet (a) t=0 ps , (b) t= 1 ps , (c) t=6 psFig.3. terminal atomic configurations to XY plane when the collision energy is (a)10 ev, and ( b)11 evFig. 4. Final atomic configurations , when the incident energy is (a)14 ev, and (b)15 evFig. 5. Final atomic configurations to XY plane when the incident energy i s (a) 1 Kev, (b) 10 Kev, (c) 20 KevFig. 6. (a) Cluster size dependence of threshold incident energy of defect formation in graphene, (b) Cluster size dependence of threshold energy of penetration into argon clusterFig. 7. Dependence of sputtered atoms on kinetic energy of a clusterTable 1. LennardJones potential parameters

Perception of Crime and the Criminal Justice System

Perception of aversion and the Criminal Justice System hesitation 1Fear of offensive is defined by Ferraro (Ferraro, 1995 8) as an delirious rejoinder of dread or anxiety to horror or symbols that a person associates with offense ( science lab, 2014 11). In opposite words alarm creates damaging emotions with a dupe that imp subr extinctines negatively on and traumatize the individual. For deterrent casing re tout ensembley often a woman is sc atomic number 18d to open the approach of her support by and bywards she or an acquaintance swallow been exposed to an armed kinsfolkhold robbery in the recent past.Deterrence is defined in the SBS learning guide (CPM100 5) as Means stay freshing villainy in general because of dread of being caught by police, prosecuted through the courts and punished. It in same(p) manner means eliminating the physical opportunities to site iniquity by the presence of a police official, or by using locks or alarms and other (physical ) measures according to Van Heerden (Van Heerden,1976154-155). The Merriam-Webster On-line lexicon defines discouragerence as the inhibition of criminal behavior by fear especially of punishment (http// date of attack 19 meet 2015) In other words you will refrain from drunkenness more than drinks at a pub than allowed by the jural barrier according to the law. If you know that if you dink more than two beers will contribute in the blood alcohol level in your blood exceeds the legal limit, you will stick to it or arrange for designated driver. The itemor that will go on you is that the police have roadblocks in your ara where they test your blood alcohol levels. The penalty for imbibing and driving very severe and you may in like manner loose your drivers license for a period. The idea of those consequences deters you from drinking and driving.a) The first one is referred to as Specific deterrence. It focuses ad hocally o n the individual. The locate of this deterrence is to maintain repeat offences by the individual by reject a repetition and by creating an understanding that in that location will be consequences.b) Secondly there is General or indirect deterrence. This deterrence focuses on making examples of perpetrators. It is not specifically focuses on influencing the public view and cognition by instilling harsh and decisive punishment for criminal offenses deplumeted. It focuses on manageable incoming wrongdoers and prevents crimes in front they can be committed.(Schmalleger, 2003, p. 406), (http// , picture of accessed 19 edge 2015). In other words specific deterrence focuses on the perpetrator that was being found blameable in a court of law and receives his sentencing. The severity of the punishment will deter him from committing crime in rising. General or indirect deterrence focuses more on the general public by making an example of this specific offender and instilling a suitable sentence in magnitude to discourage future offenders from committing similar crimes.a) The first requirement of deterrence is ruggedness according to Lab (2014175), it is when you have to ensure the punishment will be harsh enough in golf-club to deter the would be offender from committing the offence. If an would be armed robber knows that should he be caught and found guilty in a court of law, he will be sentenced to a minimum of twenty years in prison.b) Certainty fit to Lab (2014 175) it deal with the chances of being caught, in other words if the would be offender knows that the police is understaffed and that the detectives be inexperienced and have just to frequently work, chances of them focusing on every docket ar very slim, he capability not be deterred from committing the crime. If the local police are comprehend to be corrupt and criminals knew that from experience they can buy their way out, they m ight nit be deterred.c) Celerity match to Lab(2014 276) it deals with the swiftness of punishment or pain in the ass that will be inflicted later on committing a crime. swift punishment after there experiencing of the pleasure of committing the crime is wished in order to prevent a possible crime. Should a criminal be caught soon after an armed robbery that as widely published a be arraigned in court soon after that serves as a deterrent. Should you be able to get swift trial and conviction while the act that he committed is still fresh in the minds of himself, and the public, it serves well as a deterrent, both(prenominal) for the criminal and other would-be criminals alike. An example of this case of prevention is the incident that was reported on bleaks24 on the 22nd of March 2015. (http// Date Accessed 24 March 2015) Two armed robbers attacked a guy that walked down the street in Johannesburg CBD. T hey wanted to carry his bags and he refused. They threatened him with a poke and robbed him of R40. Shortly after the incident the victim saw a police officer and alerted him. The two thugs were arrested and the money and knife found on them. They appeared in court on the 23rd oh March. Swift action and decisive, witnessed by many bystanders.1.5.a) Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). Lab (2014 54) is of the opinion that the hardenings of architectural design, that include the whole layout of cities and neck of the woodss as well as houses by means of physical security measures prevent crime. In other words if you design a propinquity for instance with just one or two entrance/exit roads you can forcefulnessively prevent crime by controlling the traffic. If those access routes are protected by CCTV cameras that monitor the traffic, even better.b) Neighborhood Crime legal community Lab (2014 85) mentions that Neighborhood and Block Watches increases community awareness. The community discusses unwashed difficultys and gets to know each other they serve out for each other and solve problems together. The community also contributes and pool recourses, for instance by patrolling the neighborhood with their own vehicles at own expense. Garscom is a very successful community-policing joining that operates in the Garsfontein area. It is run and organized by the community and has regular interaction with the Garsfontein police Station. other function of the forum is that they have an open door to the Station Commander where they report good and bad performances by the members of the station.c) version and Diffusion check to Lab (2014 113) if a community makes it more terrible for a armed robber to rob a shop, due to the fact that more and more shop owners armed themselves, the robbers would move to a safer neighborhood to sign. In other words if a home owner installs brigand proofing to the windows of his house and install an burge r alarm and build a two beat wall around his house, the would be burgled would rather target a softer target and if a whole neighborhood does the same the burglar would target a different neighborhood that is a softer target.d) Using the mass media to prevent crime agree to Lab (2014 136) the implementation of the mass media to fight/prevent crime can be very utile. TV Shows like Crimestop and When Duty Calls where crime is reported and where photos of known criminals or suspects are shown and the publics cooperation is communicate are very useful in preventing crime.e) Developmental Crime barroom According to Lab (2014158) this type of primary crime prevention, targets the potential of deal to become criminals. In other words it targets the behavior, beliefs and attitudes that are learned by youths. These programmes target the youth and attempt to embed the right environments and learning at an early stage. Essentially what the youngsters learn and are exposed to dictate thei r future behavior. Captain Crime Stop has been used to great prepare in the past to visit pre and primary schools with personateations and shows to influence kids behavior.a) expectation for Secondary Prevention According to Lab (2014 194) The prediction of future offend where proper variables are used to perform analysis in order to prevent crime can be very effective. The two types are Clinical and actuarial prediction. Clinical prediction involves more personal interviews and evaluations, where Actuarial prediction is done based on known parameters in visible(prenominal) data. Data can be collected per police ward as per the CAS System and the management can analyze the data on for instance house robberies and then design a plan specifically to restrict these types of crimes in the area.b) Situational Crime Prevention According to Lab (2014215 235) this type of crime prevention focuses to a great extent on planning before implementation. It leads to a more focused approach where places, individuals, and different things at guess are identified that are at risk to victimisation and repeated victimization is prevented. For example, smash and grab incidents occur regularly at the zombie on the fly-over in Garsfontein road. Female drivers early in the morning or just before sunset are targeted. A task team is formed and tasked to draft a plan on how to prevent the victimization of female drivers that drive alone in their cars.c) Partnerships for crime prevention According to Lab(2014 237 254) it includes Community policing. A very typical example is the old ensample of the British Police, the bobby on the beat. A specific police officer is depute to a street, like for instance Oxford Street. He patrols this street every faulting and gets to know all the shop owners, newspaper sales vendors and other plenty that frequent the street. He knows the ins and outs of the area and the people that frequent there providing a personal service to them. In Gar sfontein specific police officers per shift are assigned to specific sectors to work in.d) Drugs, Crime and Crime Prevention According to Lab (2014 255 296) drugs and the use and sale of drugs have a definite effect on crime in an area. Drug addicts to support their habits for instance commit theft, prostitution and other petty crimes. Focus on the drug dealers and pull back them out of the equation and you bring down the levels of crime.e) Removing the potential reward(s) of the crime According to website of The New York City Alliance Against Sexual round off under the headspring Factsheets Crime Prevention (http// Date of access 24 March 2015) it mentions the removal of the potential reward(s) of the crime as a form of secondary crime prevention. It mentions that shop owners place tags on clothes that marks/stains the clothing with ink is it is removed after been stolen, thus rendering the reward/clothing useless. Another example closer to home is the method used by money in transit companies to arm the cash containers with ink cartridges that stains the money if the container is opened after been stolen.1.7.a) Specific Deterrence Imprisonment According to Lab(2104 301 304), imprisonment serves as a form of tertiary deterrence. He argues that it is not the most effective form, but one of the most accepted forms used by community/the judicial system to prevent recidivism.b) Incapacitation Tertiary Crime Prevention According to Lab (2014 297 335) involves tertiary crime prevention the actions taken to prevent the offender to repeat such an offence. Most of tertiary crime prevention travel with in the formal judicial system that means suitable punishment or pain inflicted by the court of law on an offender. It also serves, as deterrence for would be offenders to prevent them from committing crimes. For instance if a car-thieve receives a ten to fifteen-year sentence, it should prevent him from committing another similar offence once he served his sentence. According to the web page of US Definitions, incapacitation is defined as the effect of a sentence in terms of positively preventing the sentenced person from committing future offenses. This concept is different from the theory of specific deterrence in which an offender is punished to make him/her understand the specific consequences of his/her offense. Incapacitation aims to prevent future crimes by taking away the offenders ability to commit offenses (http// Accessed 24 March 2015). The three strikes rule is a good example of this type of tertiary prevention. This law means that an offender with two anterior convictions is sentence to life imprisonment for the third offence. (Stanford Law School, Stanford Three Strikes Project, https// Accessed 24 March 2014 )c) Electronic Monitoring According to Lab (2014 310 316) the use of electronic monitoring provides a new avenue of incarceration. The convict is attached to an electronic monitor that monitors his movement and take place the convict for instance under house arrest and monitors enables the authorities to ensure that he remains in his house.d) replenishment According to Lab (2014 317 335) replacement of criminals was the major method of tertiary crime prevention. He also argues that there is no uniform opinion that rehabilitation is very effective in recidivism. Lab mentions various rehabilitation programs like Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions, Intensive supervision and Restorative Justice as some that are implemented.Question 22.1.On the website BLAIR Analytics (http//, Accessed 24 March 2015), they schema the SARA Model as the qualitys that are taken in a problem orientating policing approach. These st eps areScanning The following discipline is gathered during this stepYou need to invest recurring problems of that is of concern to both the public and the police.You need to identify the consequences of the problem for the community and the police as identified in the first step.The identified problems need to be prioritized.The adjacent step is to develop goals that are not very specific, but are broadly defined.Before you can continue you need to reassure that the problems exist. succeeding(a) you need to find out how often the problems occur and what the duration of these problems were.The nigh step is to choose the most prevalent problems for closer scrutiny.Analysis sideline the steps taken in the examine phase you need to identify and form an understanding of situations and conditions that pre-empt or precede and also are present with the identified problem.The data then need to be collected pertaining to the problem need to be identified. happen upon similar types of pr oblems and research them. polish off a list of how the problem is now being dealt with and also look at how the current response reflects the strong points and the weak points of the approach.The scope of the problem ineluctably to be narrowed down and you need to look at specifics.Make a list of all he available recourses that may aid you to obtain a better or deeper understanding of the problem.The uttermost(a) step is to design a workable hypothesis on why there is a problem.Response The R in SARA stands for response. You completed the S scanning branch of the problem and also completed the A analysis of the problem. direct you need to look at the response. Take the following steps guard a brainstorming session to look for new type of interventions/strategies calculate out for other communities that experience similar challenges and have a look at their solutions.Identify what of those solutions or strategies you want to use.Draft a response plan and gather all role players. Stating the specific objectives for the response plan.The last step in this section is to implement the planned interventions.Assessment succeeding(a) the implementation of the plan(s) you have to do a proper assessmentYou need to find out is the designed plan was initialized and evaluate it.You need to gather qualitative and quantitative data of both before you responded with the plan and after you responded and compare it.Look at your goals that were set for the plan and find out if the specific objectives were reached.The process doesnt stop here you need to keep on looking for new strategies that may enhance the initial plan. concoct it is an ongoing process and you need to continuously assess and evaluate the process to make sure that is effective.(Website Center for Problem- Orientated Policing, University at Albany, State University of New York. http// Accessed 24 March 2014)2.2.a) Strengths Identify and list all the strong points and attribut es of your Unit or Police station and note it down.b) Weaknesses Identify and list all the weaknesses or perceived weaknesses of your Unit or Police station in dealing with the problem.c) Opportunities Identify and list all the opportunities you have available to deal with the identified problem.d) Threats Identify and list the threats experienced or anticipated.2.3.a) planningb) organizingc) leadingd) controllingList of ReferencesSteven P. LAB, Crime Prevention, 2014, 8th Edition, Anderson Publishing, and take shape of Elsevier 225 Wyman Street Waltham, MA 02451, USASouthern Business School, Crime Prevention Management 1 Study Guide (CPM 100), 2008 Business School revise 2014 (New Edition), Plot 10, R28 Service Road, Diswilmar, Krugersdorp.The Merriam-Webster On-line dictionary, (http// date of access 19 March 2015)(Schmalleger, 2003, p. 406), (http//, Accessed 19 March 2015).News24 o n the 22nd of March 2015. Two held for Joburg armed robberyhttp// Date Accessed 24 March 2015Website The New York City Alliance Against Sexual Assault under the heading Factsheets Crime Prevention http// Date of access 24 March 2015Web page of US Definitions, http//, Accessed 24 March 2015Website BLAIR Analytics http//, Accessed 24 March 2015Website Center for Problem- Orientated Policing, University at Albany, State University of New York. http// Accessed 24 March 20141

Thursday, March 28, 2019

James :: essays research papers

A captivating tale of relationship of devil troubling blood comrades in Harlem, " fellers discolour" is told from a perspective of Sonnys brother, whose name is neer mentioned. Baldwins choice of Sonnys brother as a narrator is what makes "Sonnys Blues" meaning(a) in terms of illustrating the relationship and emotional complications of Sonny and his brother. The significance of "Sonnys Blues" lies in the way Sonnys brother describes the relationship based on what he observes, hears, and feels, and how he struggles trying to understand Sonny through the course of the story. As Sonnys brother, he gets to be physically and mentally as close to Sonny as anyone else can. Readers get to know that Sonnys brother is a fairly original narrator from the fact that he is an algebra teacher and far less maltreat by "horse" or "the low ceiling of their actual possibilities" than the kids more or less the neighborhood, including Sonny. Sonnys brothe r is alert of what is going on between Sonny and him and accurately describes the relationship, "The seven years difference in our ages lay between us wish a chasm I wondered if these years would ever operate between us as a bridge." (44) The "chasm" is where the story begins, and revolves more or less the entire story. Sonnys brother is aware of the "chasm," yet what Sonny is thinking remains mysterious since the narrator himself does non know. His narration allows readers to keep wondering and exploring flaky and "dreamlike" mind of Sonny. Sonnys brother stands as a major character and in addition as a first person narrator, meaning that he is a participant in the action. Baldwin achieves the sense of vividness by placing the narrator right in the nerve centre of the action. "I started down the steps, whistle to keep from crying, I kept whistling to myself, You going to need me, baby, one of these cold, rainy days." (54) After an awfu l fight, Sonnys brother is disappointed at Sonny and himself. His whistling vividly conveys his struggle, despair and also love for his brother, allowing readers to get into his feeling. Dialogue is effectively used from Sonnys brothers point of fascinate to convey how misunderstanding of two brothers gets built up. In the middle of a long conversation, Sonnys brother notes, "I simply couldnt see why on earth hed want to spend his time hanging around nightclubs, waggery around on bandstands, while people pushed each other around a dance floor.

Comparing A Worn Path by Eudora Welty and A Rose For Emily by William F

Comparing A Worn cut by Eudora Welty and A Rose For Emily by William Faulkner In the pages of the short stories, A Worn pathway and A Rose For Emily we be able to see a akin(predicate) side and connection between the both. As we look at the theme, tone, and morals we are able to better grasp the conflict in these two stories, while detecting whether the two protagonists, Miss Emily and genus Phoenix Jackson are mentally crazy. The main moral in A Worn Path is the love, and life of Phoenix Jackson. The path she travels across interrupts her life. Her love is the love and middle she has for her grandson. If we read the story closer then it whitethorn lead us to the conclusion that Phoenix really does not have a Grandson. Phoenix complains to the doctor that her Grandson has had a sore throat for an extremely long while. This may cause the reader to believe that she used to have a Grandson further he became so sick he died. Yet, at the same time Phoenix also shows her intellect by seeing the money finalise out of the hunters jacket from a far off distance. In A Rose For Emily the main moral is...

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Peer Mediation and Conflict Resolution are the Solutions to Teen Violence :: Teens Teenage Violence

every(prenominal) year, nearly one-million twelve to nineteen year olds are murdered robbed, or assaulted m any by their peers and teenagers are more than twice as apparent as adults to become the victims of violence. Although the problem is far too complex for any one resolving, commandment teen people conflict proclamation skills, passive techniques for resolving disputes seems to help. To reduce youth violence, conflict resolution skills should be taught to all(a) children before they reach junior high discipline. First and most important, novel people look at to learn nonviolent way of dealing with conflict. In a dangerous society where guns are readily available, many young teens feel they have no choice but to respond to an diss or an argument with violence. If they have gr receive up seeing family members and neighbors counterbalance to stress with verbal or physical violence, they may not hit the hay that other choices exist. Behavior like carrying a weapon or refusing to jeopardize down gives young people the illusion of control, but what they desperately need is to learn real control for example, when provoked, learn to walk away. Next, conflict resolution programs have been shown to reduce violent incidents and empower young people in a healthy way. Many programs and courses in Charlotte Mecklenburg are teaching teens and preteens to defecate through disagreements without violence. Tools include calmly telling ones own side of the story and listening to the other person without interrupting or blaming skills that many adults dont have Peer Mediation, a Charlotte Mecklenburg public school program, starts in middle school it trains students to be mediators, helping peers find their own solutions to conflicts ranging from a fight over a boy or young woman friend to interracial gang disputes. Finally, although this appears as just a Band-Aid solution that does not address the root causes of teen violence poverty, troubled fam ilies, horrid schools, and drugs. Conflict resolution training saves lives. The larger social issues out at that place must be addressed, but they will take years to solve, whereas teaching students new

Human Cloning Essay -- Science Biology Genetics Genes Essays

Human clone Ever since the cl unmatchable of the first mammal, the sheep Dolly, in 1996 by Ian Wilmut of the Roslin Institute, people befuddle been begun to consider how they find oneself about human beings cloning. Is it possible? Should we do it? The overwhelming answer seems to be yes to the first question, and no to the second. Yes, because cloning a human is not much different from cloning a sheep. The cloning procedure is actually so surprisingly non-technical that laboratories could considerably begin conducting their own research on human embryos today. In fact, one physicist who researched fertility sciences in the 1980s, Dr. Richard Seed, says he can already do it, and is context of use up a clinic. His clinic probably wont succeed, however, because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration would have to approve such a clinic before it could operate, and they probably wont ( earth Book 13). If he did set up a clinic, the result would most likely phone number out the same as a similar event in 1993, when researchers used well-known techniques to begin artificially twinning humans. They immediately became embroil in a firestorm of public scrutiny, and they were criticized by other researchers in the orbit for jumping ahead without scrutinizing the ethical ramifications (Bohlin 4). Clearly, although we have this technology right at our fingertips, the general community doesnt feel right about using it. In a CNN poll taken of 1,005 American adults in 1997, 89% feel that cloning humans is morally unacceptable, 69% are afraid of the hap of cloning humans, and 74% believe that human cloning is against Gods will (Robinson 8). much recently, the Vatican condemned human cloning as being perverse (Been 1). The scientists who knockoffd Doll..., but only(prenominal) if we take the dangers seriously. Works Cited Bailey, Ronald. The Twin Paradox. Reason Online. May 1997. Beddington, Rosa. clone. 1997. Been, Jennie. Can we and should we clone humans ? Bohlin, Dr. Ray. Can Humans Be Cloned Like Sheep? 1997. Deltapoint, Inc. Human Cloning and Re-Engineering. 1996 Green, Ronald M. I, Clone. Scientific American. September 1999. Hawley, Aaron. Cloning. March 2, 1998. Kilner, Dr. John F. Cloning Around. Life Advocate. July/ marvellous 1997. National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Executive Summary - Cloning Human Beings. June 1997. Ramey, Cathy. Cloning A Theological View. Life Advocate. July/August 1997. Robinson, Bruce A. Ethical Aspects of Human Cloning. January 15, 2000. Slouching Towards Creation. Time. World Book v 1.4 Cloning Are Humans Next? 1999.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Massachusetts Legislature Votes to Ban Same-Sex Marriages but Approves

milliampere Legislature right to votes to Ban Same-Sex Marriages merely Approves of Civil UnionsAs supporters and opponents were anxiously awaiting for a decision on Mar. 29, the Massachusetts legislature voted 105-92 to ban sprightly marriage when it approved of amending the state physical composition that would overturn the autonomous Judicial Courts ruling that make same-sex marriages legal five months ago. However, the legislature also voted to legalize civil unions.The amendment was change from when it was introduced this month, and now says that aside from permitting civil unions but banning gay marriage, it would light up that gay couples who marry into civil unions would non receive any federal marriage rights and benefits. It cannot be changed again if lawmakers want it to continue onto the Nov. 2006 ballot.Gov. Mitt Romney asked the lawcourt to deter same-sex marriages until voters can make a final decision in Nov. 2006. Attorney General Thomas F. Reilly told the capital of Massachusetts Globe that since Gov. Romney lacked, a reason commensurate legal basis for stay, because the SJC has ruled twice in favor of gay marriage, he would not take Romneys request to the state Supreme Court.It has not been decided what will happen to couples that marry between whitethorn 17 and Nov. 2006. According to the Boston Globe, a Mar. 2004 poll indicated 53 portion of Massachusetts residents opposed gay marriage while 60 per centum supported civil unions. Also, 71 percent of the surveyed individuals feel voters should be able to define marriage, not the courts or the legislature.You vote on whether or not you want things like highway taxes, says Valerie Fein-Zachary, who sees this as a civil rights issue, not a voting issue. It should not be determined by the best-selling(predicate) vote of the... ...ture, making it difficult for all minorities to achieve equality. Hopefully, with all of the planetary progress currently taking place in Europe, some date in the near future same-sex couples will be able to seduce the same rights as heterosexual couples.Works CitedHuman Rights Watch throw in amusing Marriage. (2003, September 5). Retrieved October 20, 2003 from the World Wide Web (http// Klein, Rick. (2004, March 30). Vote Ties Civil Unions to Gay-Marriage Ban Romney to Seek Stay of SJC Order. Boston Globe. p. A1Rabbis To Okay Gay Marriages Its a Done Deal. (1999, December 24). The Forward, (31), 268, 1.Reston, Maeve. Wednesday, November 19, 2003. Victory For Gay Couples In Mass. Same-Sex Marriages Okd By Highest Court. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.Ryan-Vollmar, S. and Chuck, E. (2003, June 27). Boston Phoenix. p. 20-22.

Ralph Bacerra Essay -- Art

Ralph Bacerra attended Chouinard Art Institute in Los Angelas. Although his original intention was to run short a graphic designer, his career path changed after taking a class with Vivika Heino (Stewart, 2008). Heino was the lead ceramics teacher at Chouinard and it was under her instruction that Bacerra appoint his love for ceramics. Heino was very influential in her use of glazes and inspired Bacerra to examine and branch out in regards to his glazing methods. After a brief check in the military Bacerra traveled to China and Japan where he was greatly influenced by the style and glazing techniques of the East. Bacerra went back to Chouinard where he taught for eight years and served as chairman of the ceramics department and later served the same position at genus Otis College of Art and Design (Bacerra, 2004). Bacerra uses very distinctive geometric elements in his ceramic pieces. Bacerras pieces incorporate stripes of shifting background hues, twisting lines, with mesh cube s and cones with cylinders and other geometric volumes (Lloyd, 2010 Clothier, 2012). At first glance Bacerras pieces appear to have odds and ends jutting out in peculiar and ergodic ways. However, when one takes a closer look, all of the shapes and lines work together in a simple and elegant way. Many of his pieces have a mixed bag of both organic and mechanical elements. He uses organic shell-like circles and smooth, almost melted looking lines along with defined geometric squares, triangles, and circles giving his work a distinct abstract look. Bacerra uses a wide range of color in his pieces but sticks mostly with a bluish-green palate with hints of gold. Many of his pieces are comprised of unalike shades and values of blue and green (sometimes purple ... 7-19). Interview by F Lloyd Audio Tape Recording. Oral history interview with ralph bacerra. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. , Retrieved from http// y-interview-ralph-bacerra-12942Clothier, P. (2012). Ralph bacerra. American ceramics, Retrieved from http// Hamer, F., & Hamer, J. (2004). The potters dictionary of materials and techniques. (5 ed.). Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Press.Lloyd, F. (2010). Ralph bacerra. Retrieved from http// Jenyns, S. (1971). Japanese pottery. London, England Praeger Publishers.Stewart, J. Y. (2008, June 13). Ceramic artist famed for use of patterns. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http//

Monday, March 25, 2019

Impact of the Cold War on the World Economies Essay -- Russia vs Ameri

Abstract from study piece War II created many issues on a military personnel wide scale, two different forms a government were flake for influence. This created a divide between communist countries and democratic counties which set up the shivery War. This divided world created a globalized economy unlike ever before, maven with communist countries and one with democratic. All the countries of the world, of each government type, were interconnected and parasitical on each other. The countries of the opposite group were not good deald with, all the occupation was done within a countries own group.-----------------------------------------------------------------Keeping a tribes economy going is a very difficult balance act. Things the country itself does, like pass new laws, can effect a countries economy greatly. Situations were economies are hurt by new laws are exclusively in the hands of the countries government. In some mails its not in their control at all. This is li ke the situation with Scotland and its trade with Russia. The actions Russia has taken with the Ukraine hold caused the European Union to put sanctions on Russia. This intern has hurt Scotlands economy greatly. The country usually exports 45 million GPD of food and deglutition to Russia but 22 million GPD was stopped by the sanctions. That is a bulky loss in revenue and has far reaching affects, the normal trade of these countries can be seen in the image bellow. Also it not merely affects that sector of the economy but ripples through the whole economy (Maddox). However, this situation is not a new one and its causes can be traced seat to the tatty War.World War II created many issues on a world wide scale, two different forms a government were fighting for influence.... ...illars in the modern globalized democratic economy, alongside the U.S., causing many issues and creating a worldwide economic rift even to this day. WORKS CITEDHoffman Reports Gain in Cold War New York Ti mes, December 8,1949.Maddox, David. Nato tells Putin We stand with Ukraine The Scotsman, September 5, 2014.McWilliams, Wayne C., and Harry Piotrowski. The World since 1945 A History of International Relations. 7th ed. Boulder Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2009.Our Own Correspondent, et al. line of merchandise Powers And European Economy. Times London, England 11 Apr. 1950 6. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 16 Apr. 2015.Painter, David. The Cold War An International History. New York Routledge, 1999.Simensen, Jarle. Democracy and Globalization Nineteen eighty-nine and the Third Wave Journal of World History 10.2 (1999) 391-411.

My Hobby Essay -- essays research papers

MY finical HOBBYPractically every person has his or her own sideline whether its a sport, collecting certain items, or something one takes their sentence practicing. Personally, I never thought I ever had a hobby. As a matter of fact I wasnt even veritable what a hobby actually was. Then I got to cerebration and I finally realized that my hobby was dancing. Yes, I know that to some concourse dancing is not ascertained a true hobby but the elan I see it, if I enjoy dancing and spend my remarkable time doing it, then I have every right to consider it as my special hobby.As far as I cigarette remember about my childhood, I have always loved to dance. bound was just my thing. I remember attending bal allow classes when I was fin years old. I would learn the routines so quickly that the instructor would sometimes ask me to help her teach the other students. The greatest part of being in ballet was attending the ballet recitals. That was when each of us let ourselves shine in front of our family and friends. I always thought that the advertise was watching my every move and thinking, Wow, that girl dances so gracefully. Just thinking that made me try even harder to be the best I could. I would practice every day after school and right in front bedtime, too. It didnt even matter to me if there was no music playing, I just kept on dancing.Becoming a famous terpsichorean was one of my greatest childhood dreams. I believed that one-day I would get the chan...